Cabo Verde in Hawai'i

by Edgar C. Knowlton, Jr.
Professor Emeritus of European Languages University of Hawaii

NOTE: I met Dr. Knowlton in Hawaii in 1999 after he had retired from teaching at the University of Hawaii. He told me of his research into the Cape Verde diaspora to the Hawaiian Islands and its unique nature (many of the early Cape Verdean arrivals blended into the local Hawaiian populace, assumed Hawaiian surnames, and no longer claimed their Cape Verdean roots). Because of this it is very difficult to evaluate the true number of Cape Verdean descendants currently living in the Hawaiian Islands. Dr. Knowlton graciously allowed me to see and use his notes. This document is taken directly from Dr. Knowlton's un-proofed research notes. I have saved this information and am sharing it with others as it proved useful in my own research into my Cape Verdean ancestry. I have included several notes from my research at the end of this article.
M Engel

The presence of immigrants to Hawai'i from the Cabo Verde islands is well known; a characteristic statement follows:1

“Crewmembers aboard whaling ships, arriving in the Islands between 1820 and 1880, included a small number of Portuguese of Black heritage from the Cabo Verde Islands. Some of these sailors stayed in Hawai'i to become permanent residents, taking jobs as cooks, barbers, tailors, sailors on international vessels, and members of musical groups. Four Blacks formed a royal brass band for Kamehameha [IV] in 1834, and another Black, George W. Hyatt, organized a larger band in 1845.2

Marriages occurred with Hawaiians, and these people and their children became classified in censuses as Portuguese or Part-Hawaiian.” 3


“There are the part-Negroes descended from the so-called ‘Black Portuguese’ men who came to Hawaii on whaling ships from 1820 to 1880. These men came from the Cabo Verde Islands, a Portuguese possession, and some were mixed bloods, while others may have been of pure Negro descent. They were classified as Portuguese in censuses before 1900. Their children were, for the most part, Hawaiian but there were some part Portuguese. Typically, the Part-Hawaiian children of these Negroes married back into the Hawaiian or Part-Hawaiian group so that later generations were mainly of Hawaiian blood. Some of the children of these Negroes and Portuguese white women married into the Hawaiian group—probably most of them—so that the Negro-Portuguese mixed blood statistical group has tended to disappear, the more remote descendants being, in fact, Part-Hawaiian, but for census purposes often classified as Hawaiian. By 1940 it is probable that nearly all the descendants of these Black Portuguese were classified for census purposes as Part-Hawaiian and the number was, in all probability, between seven and eight thousand.”; 4


“Portuguese with an African admixture, hailing from various islands off the west coast of Africa (known on Cabo Cod as Black Portuguese or ‘Bravas’) have from the earliest days of fur-trading and whaling in the Pacific constituted a not unimportant racial element among the seamen so engaged.... From an early period, these Black Portuguese were to be found in the Hawaiian Islands. When William J. Pigot took command of the Forester at Hawaii in December 1813, he took on board some Hawaiians to work the ship and with them a ‘Black fellow by name of Joe’ who seems to have been acquainted on the Northwest Coast. This man was probably identical with ‘Black Joe’ who ‘died of a fever’ the afternoon of July 27, 1828, and with ‘Portuguese Joe; an ancient resident of this Island (Oahu),’ whose son Manuel Joseph on March 31, 1843, filed a claim to some land in ‘the Valley of Manoa’ before the British Commission which for six months in 1843 governed the Hawaiian Islands.... On March 31, 1843, Richard Ford laid before the British Commission claims to land not only on behalf of the Portuguese Black Manuel Joseph but also of that of the colored men (nationality unspecified) Henry Wallace and William Levingston.”

Consultation of the documents in question, two letters to George, Lord Paulete—permits one to assert that the words “Portuguese Black” do not occur in the text, which reads, in the relevant part:

“I am solicited by Manuele Joseph, the son of Portuguese Joe, an ancient resident of this Island.... this young Boy’s Estate is situated in the Valley of Manoa.... there is a Premises, that did belong to his Mother, the same, he claims, as her son and Heir. The Father, and Mother are deceased, and are buried on the land of Manoa.” Since Portuguese Joe died on April 26, 1830, and was buried in Honolulu on April 27, 1830, years after Black Joe’s death, it is not possible to consider them as the same man.

“Not only American Negroes and Portuguese blacks but also some ‘natives of Africa’ became residents of the Hawaiian Islands. The naturalization records include the following: John Francis, November 5, 1850…”5

Another early possible example might be the following:

“On November 5, 1820, Don Francisco Marin received into his house a Negro named Julian Camilo, probably a black Portuguese, who had run away from the ship Liberty.”;6

It will be noted that in these quotations, terms suggesting color or race have been used; a term like “African islander” or “Caboverdeano” would be better, inasmuch as the emphasis should be geographical. The geographical term is more realistic since words referring to color and race may be neither consistent nor true in any given case. In the United States in particular, terminology used in the census, a source of part of the available information, has been inconsistent. “Caboverdeano” or “Capeverdean” seems preferable to “Cape Verdean,” often used, but a hybrid combining English and Portuguese in an illogical manner.

These statements are a mere beginning for the student of the immigrants from Cabo Verde in Hawaii. The islands have been divided into two groups: Windward or Barlavento, including Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau, Boa Vista, and Sal, and Leeward or Sotavento: Maio, Santiago, Fogo, and Brava.7

A statement which expresses an opinion, rather than being based on solid fact, is found in The Friend, vol. lxiii, no. 9, for September 10, 1906, signed by initials S.E.B.:

“40 and 50 years ago the great majority of our then small Portuguese population were whaling seamen brought from the Cape de Verd Islands, near the coast of Senegal, on which islands the people are mainly of part negro blood and exhibit the well-known defects of the African race.”

S.E.B. probably represents Sereno E. Bishop. One might well question this statement; the defects are not specified and suggests that the “African race” is in some way flawed.

The presence of a group of descendants of immigrants from these is documented by a series of items between two rival local Portuguese newspapers in Honolulu in 1911.

A statement regarding the Portuguese immigrants was made by the Consul-General of Portugal, A. de Souza Canavarro, on October 30, 1911, to the effect that he considered that the Portuguese had greatly improved their situation by migrating to Hawaii.8

According to the item, these words of the Consul General constituted a direct and concise answer to the editorial published in their paper the previous Saturday, and also were a slap in the face at the rival newspaper, edited by J. S. Ramos, and a full reply to the “argumentos loucos d'um discipulo ordinario de Esculapio e á rhetorica [sic] immunda d'um bandido padreco de côr e semblante de Caboverdeano indegina.” i.e., “crazy arguments of an ordinary disciple of [A]esculapius the god of medicine for Greeks and Romans and the filthy rhetoric of an unworthy priest of the color and aspect of a Caboverdean native.” 9

O Popular, the rival newspaper, took up the cudgel as follows:

“A colonia portuguesa das ilhas de Cabo Verde n'este Territorio acaba de ser ultrajada pelo [sic] os rabiscadores do Illuso do sabbado passado.

Querendo aquelles lorpas ridiculisar um dos collaboradores d'este jornal -diz -e á rhetorica [sic] immunda d'um bandido padreco de côr e semblante de Caboverdeano indigena.

Ora esta expressão é querer deprimir o honrado e industrioso filho das ilhas de Cabo Verde; quando nós todos sabemos que a colonia caboverdeana n'este Territorio apezar de pequena, é a mais educada instruida e industrial das colonias portuguezas aqui estabelecidas em proporção ao seu tamanho. Senão vejamos alguns que nos occorre n'este momento.

Os snrs. Centeios da rua Luzo, que sã o propietarios da maior mercearia portugueza n'esta cidade, bemquistos e estimados pelo commercio estrangeiro e por todos os portuguezes. O snr. M. J. Pereira, de Waimea, Kauai, o maior cultivador portuguez de canna d'assucar n'este Territorio, activo e emphehendedor [sic], outros que são propietarios de leitarias como o snr. Pires, do Kalihi, outros empregados em diversos ramos de negocios, etc., etc. fallando todos elles bom portuguez lendo-o e escrevendo-o.

A côr propria do caboverdeano é pois um signal de respeito e honradez, mais nobre e mais activa d'aquelle quem rabisca tal periodo que provavelmente tem a cara escura devido á sua sem vergonha, de caloteiro e trapaceiro que sã o as vertudes de quem assim procede, outros ainda parecem-se mais com chinos que com portuguezes.

Aquelles patricios que lhes agradeçam taes amabilidades.”

[“the Portuguese colony of the islands of Cabo Verde in this Territory has just been outraged by the base writers of the Illuso” a play on words with “Luso”, meaning “Portuguese” or “ Lusitanian”, of last Saturday.

Those imbeciles wishing to ridicule one of the collaborators of this newspaper-speak of the filthy rhetoric of a bandit base priest of the color and aspect of a native of Cabo Verde.

Now this expression seeks to demean the honorable and hardworking son of the islands of Cabo Verde: when we all know that the Caboverdean colony in this Territory despite being small is the most well-bred, educated and industrious of the Portuguese colonies here established, in proportion to its size. But let us look at some of them that occur to us at this moment.

The Centeios [Kings] of Luzo (later Lusitana) Street, who are owners of the largest Portuguese market in this city, well liked and respected by foreign commerce and all Portuguese, Mr. M.J. Pereira of Waimea, Kauai, the greatest Portuguese cultivator of sugar cane in this Territory, active and enterprising, others who are owners of dairies like Mr. Pires of Kalihi, others employed in different branches of business, etc., all of them speaking good Portuguese, reading it and writing it.

The very color of the Caboverdean is then a sign of respect and honor. Nobler and more active than the one who has been writing trash for so long that probably his face is dark because of his shame, for the virtues of a person behaving thus are those of a swindler and a crook, others still resemble Chinese more than Portuguese. Let those countrymen be grateful to them for such amiabllities.”]10

An apology was printed in O Luso of November 11, 1911, p. 4, edited by Godofredo Ferreira Affonso:

“A origem da opposição—o pasquim dos malcontentes indecentes da expressã o—quer fazer capital com respeito á applicação e emprego que fizemos na semana finda relativo aos Cabo-Verdeanos.

Ê verdade que na expressão d'entã o insultamos os nossos patricios de Cabo Verde. Foi um lapso mental e por elle pedimos perdão á quelles que comprehendem a situação e ainda julgam que foram insultados.

Foi um insulto verdadeiro, que jamais commetteremos, comparar os nossos bons Cabo-Verdeanos com gente da classe do Dr. Pulha e do Padreco Bandido.

Os Cabo-Verdeanos são mil vezes superiores em caracter, educaç ão e moral aos Judas Iscariotas Pulha e Padreco.”

[“The origin of the opposition—the yellow journal of the malcontents indecent in expression—wishes to make capital with respect to the application and use we made last week with regard to the Cabo-Verdeanos.

It is true that in the expression used then we insulted our fellow countrymen of Cabo Verde. It was a mental lapse and for it we beg pardon from those who understand the situation and still deem that they were insulted.

It was a true insult, which we never shall commit, to compare our good Cabo- Verdeanos with people of the sort of Dr. Pulha [Skunk] and the Bandit Base Priest.

The Cabo-Verdreanos are a thousand times superior in character, upbringing, and morality to the Judas Iscariots Pulha [Skunk] and Base Priest.”]

The Cabo Verde Islands are located west of Africa, 16° 0' N. and 24° 0' W. and have an area of 1,539 square miles.11

Off one of the islands, Brava, nineteenth century Yankee vessels anchored. The name “Bravas” (often pronounced in Hawaii “Brabas,” which would accord with Caboverdean phonetic practice)12 came to be used of all Caboverdeans, no matter which specific island they came from, but usually equated with another term, “Black Portuguese”, since many Caboverdeans may have African ancestry in whole or in part.13

In 1881 the Portuguese consul in Honolulu reported that the Portuguese colony in Hawaii, as of the earlier part of 1878, consisted of 420 Azoreans and 120 Caboverdeans: The Azorean group, he added, included sixty-six individuals who had come from California seeking employment. Most of the Caboverdeanos and some of the Azoreans married Hawaiian women, while other Azoreans secured wives from their native land. In a book published in 1930 are listed a few families, among whose members are Caboverdeans.14 Further names are provided by a list of naturalizations for 1844-1894. Newspapers and census records provide further data.

A fairly complete list of early Hawaiian Caboverdeans, subject to corrections of various sorts, follows:

  • In the 1900 census (E.D. 18, sheet 6) were listed Marcellino A. Alameda, who came to Hawaii in 1883, clerk in a grocery store, born June 1839 in Portugal, and children: Etta (b. 1874), Mrs. Mary Brito (b. 1869), who was widow of Caesar L. Brito, mother of Hannibal Almeida Brito (December 16, 1888-February 18, 1958), with OR&L Co. until retiring in 1949, was known as “Mr. Baseball,” for his 37 years as an active player of baseball as a “crackerjack catcher” from 1907 to 1944, living at 351 N. School Street, survived by sons: Archibald, transportation supervisor for Hawaiian Rapid Transit, and Hannibal, Jr., and daughters: Mrs. Clifford Brady, Mrs. Earl Rogers (whose son, Earl Rogers, Jr. was also a famous baseball player), Mrs. Charles Bishop, Mrs. Paul Hunig, Mrs. William Hardey; Caesar Brito (1890), Fanny Brito (Mrs. Ramey) (1891), Lidia or Lydia Brito (Mrs. Konnow) (1893), and Laura Brito (Mrs. M. J. Mellor) (1896). Their father, Caesar Brito, Sr., was born in Cabo Verde. [1910 census: Honolulu 282] and wife, Mary (b. 1842), all born in Portugal and coming to Hawaii in 1883. The name of C.L. Brito, 29, laborer, of Kapalama, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887. NOTE: See the Pacific Commercial Advertiser of January 23, 1895, p. 7 and January 30, 1895, p. 7 for the arrest of C.L. Brito on a charge of embezzlement and his being adjudged a bankrupt. His creditors were to appear on the 8th of February to make their claims.

  • Manuel Alexandre of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized on October 30, 1858, (N-436). Manuel Alexandre of the Western Islands died at the age of 78 on April 30, 1877.

  • M. Ana of Cabo Verde was naturalized on October 30, 1858, (N-436).

  • Naturalization, H-2, gives the naturalization of Manuel Ana, São Nicolau, Cabo Verde, and Honolulu for January 10, 1849.

  • The Friend, December 1852, p. 88, c3, had a notice of the death on October 20, 1852, at the age of 28 of Emah Antoine, native of Santo Antão, Cabo Verde, who was lost overboard.

  • Naturalization, (I-72), gives Francis Antoine of Santiago, Cabo Verde for July 8, 1850.

  • Manini Antone of Cabo Verde was naturalized on May 3, 1879. (I-65).

  • Manuel Antoine, from São Nicolau, resident of Honolulu, got Passport no. 897 in 1850. He was 26, a laborer, 5 feet 10 inches with dark hair, dark eyes, and dark physiognomy.

  • John Anton, born in Cabo Verde, resident in Honolulu, applied in 1849 for Passport no. 379, He was a farmer, aged 30, 5 feet, 6 inches with black hair, black eyes, and black physiognomy.

  • The Pacific Commercial Advertiser of November 25, 1858, p. 2, carried the item that Joseph Antone, a Portuguese from Fogo, Cabo Verde, was lost overboard and drowned. He was about 26 years old.

  • The 1900 census, E.D. 24, sh. 3 has Manuel Antone, born June 1860 in São Nicolau, coming to Hawaii in 1883, with wife, Lilia, born December 1868 in Hawaii with father from São Nicolau, and children, Maria, July 1886, Caroline, March 1887, Jose, October 1888, Antone, May 1897.

  • Naturalization (O-432) has Francisco Antonio of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde and Ewa on February 24, 1866. On April 1, 1866, took place in Honolulu the marriage of Franciscus Antonio of Ewa and Kapaku of Kalihi.

  • Julio Antonio of Cabo Verde and Moanalua was naturalized (O-243) on February 1, 1862.

  • L. or Paze Antonio, Caboverdean, was naturalized (M-61) on December 6, 1854.

  • Manoel Antonio of São Nicolau and Moanalua was naturalized on January 28, 1868, (P-65). On January 28, 1868, took place in Honolulu the marriage of Manuel Antonio of Moanalua and Malie of Moanalua.

  • Manoel Antonio, 36, and his wife, Roza Florinda, 36, were passengers on board the S.S. Hansa, coming to Hawaii in 1882, Passengers nos. 172-173 on the passenger list. They were born in Santo Antão, Cabo Verde Islands.

  • Narcizo José Antonio of Cabo Verde was naturalized (H-72) on November 26, 1849. See Narcis Perry.

  • Manini AntoneNaturalization 1.65 gives Manini Antone, of Cabo Verde and Kau, Hawaii, as naturalized 3 May 1879.

  • Tom Antone, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 44 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 24 years, was a laborer and had lived in North Kohala, Hawaii.15 See Special Rights July 30, 1894 – 9 for Kau, Kona and Kohala. A Thomas Antonio, 36, laborer, appears at Halaula in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

  • John Arause, F, of Fogo, Cabo Verde, living in Lahaina was naturalized on November 22, 1847, (F-100).

  • On the Great Register of Voters of 1887 for Oahu, School Street is listed Manoel Avaro, 26.

  • Manuel Baptist, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 35 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 11 years, was chief steward aboard the S.S. Claudine.16 [1910 census: Oahu Co. 090 as Manuel K. Baptist with John K. Baptist.] His name appears as steward for Manoa, Oahu, aged 30, for the Great Register of Voters of 1887. See Special Rights – Oahu, August 27, 1894 – 691.

  • For Waianae, Oahu, appears on the Great Register of Voters the name of Joao Baptiste, laborer, 50.

  • Manuel Antonio Barreto, born in São Nicolau, a founding member of the Santo Antonio Society, died in Honolulu July 27, 1897. See Probate No. 3126 of the 1st Circuit Court. One daughter, by Marie Pali, was Agnes Soares (1867 – 1924), and another Rosaria Barete. In the 1900 census his widow, Maria Barrett, is listed as born in Hawaii May 1878. There were children: Julio, Francisca (b. June 1882), Emilia (b. September 1887), Joe or Jose (b. November 1888), Tiofo or Theoff (b .July 1890), Lutero or Lutello (b. October 1894), Manuel (January 29,1897 – December 28, 1962), later a captain with the Honolulu Fire Department, retiring February 28, 1958 with wife Rosalie Goodness B. (May 26, 1902 – January 22, 1976), parents of four sons: Walter K. and Roy K., with the fire department, Henry K., and Homer K., and daughters: Maunaloa and Patsy L. Barrett. There was also in the 1900 census a Frank Barrett, born in 1865 in São Nicolau, coming to Hawaii in 1888, with Hawaii-born wife, Maria L. (b. July 1875) and daughter, Akeneke (born in Hawaii in May 1897). [1910 census: Honolulu 155]. A daughter of Nicholas J. Lopez, Sr., grandson of Antonio J. Lopez, was Patricia Ann Lopez Barrett, born July 5, 1948, mother of a child, Christopher Thomas Barrett. The name of Manuel A. Barret, 53, milkman, appears for Kālihi in the Great Register of Voters of 1887. There was a Manuel Antonio of São Nicolau naturalized in January 1868, (P-65). See Whaler file.

  • Manuel Barros, 23 at the time of the 1910 census E.D. 49, sheet 7B, was born in Cabo Verde, as were his parents. He came to Hawaii in 1907 and was listed as a laborer. His wife(?), Mairean, was 43, and born in São Miguel. There were children listed: Annie, 15, Marian, 11, and Flora, 6. [1910 census: Honolulu 170]

  • Luis Borros of Sãnto Antão, Cabo Verde and Ewa (L-80) was naturalized on June 24, 1854.

  • Anton Plalito (Bright?) or A(ntone) D. Bright, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 46 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 29 years, was a laborer living in Kalihi.17 The 1878 census gives Anton Plalito, Portuguese male freeholder over 40 with Kahea, female and native over 40.

  • The 1880 directory gives Antone Bright, blacksmith, in North Kohala.

  • Antone M. (or D.) Bright, 48, of Cabo Verde, is listed of Portuguese origin in the list of Citizens' Guard Commissions for (1894 or 1895?) in Kalihi with wife Kalaui or Kalani (b. June 1862), 32, children: Nuuanu, 12, and Niuaole, 7. He had lived for 29 years in Hawaii. See Special Rights, Oahu, September 10, 1894 – 965.

  • On July 24, 1878, took place the marriage in Honolulu of Antonius Bright and Juliana Kalani, born June 1862 in Hawaii according to the 1900 census.

  • See the 1900 census, vol. 11, E.D. 23, sh. 10; Antone Bright, laborer, born June 1860, is there stated to have been born in Hawaii. He and his wife, Kalani, born in June 1862 in Hawaii, are listed with two adopted sons: Antone, born in Hawaii in 1886, and Jacob K., born in Hawaii in 1888. For Jacobus Bright's return to Hawaii after 24 years on the stage, see Honolulu Star Bulletin August 2, 1935, p. 1, c. 6-7).

  • Antone Nuuanu Bright (May 13, 1881 – June 9, 1937) married Beckie Kealoha Kakalia on July 10, 1907, in Honolulu (O-56:34). They had a son: Alexander Pilialoha Bright (March 19, 1921, or March 9, 1922 – June 2 or 3, 1946), see Honolulu Advertiser, June 5, 1946, p. 2, c. 6).

  • In a letter dated May 27, 1992, Dolores Furtado Martin enclosed the following information from a friend in Seattle, who studied about the black Portuguese in Hawaii:

    Sol Bright is a great loss to the music world and to his many friends. I was very close to his father, Reverend Andrew Iaukea Bright, who was an authority on the history and legends of Hawaii. Through the old man I got to know Hannah, Andy, and Sol. I often met old Bright and his best friend ‘Blacky’ Reis for long talks at the small traffic island near the Honolulu Advertiser corner of King and Kapiolani – a short walk down to his church and home on Cooke Street. Rev. Andrew Bright would say with a hearty laugh, ‘Well I’m a Hawaiian, but my father was a black-assed popolo’—Portuguese from the port of Bravas, Cabo de Verde Islands—‘who changed his name from Da Brito to Bright’. His pal Blacky Reis looked enough like Andrew to be his brother. For he too was descended from the so-called ‘Black Portuguese’ or…”

  • The Reverend Andrew Iaukea Bright was born in Kailua-Kona May 10, 1881, and died at 12:45 p.m. on November 15, 1939 (See Honolulu Advertiser, November 16, 1939, p. 2, c. 6; Honolulu Star Bulletin November 15, 1939, p. 1). On January 14, 1904, he married Alice Keohi Kekipi, who was born in Kakaopala, Kohala, Hawaii, November 17, 1885, and died in Honolulu January 19, 1947. On the wedding license it says Andrew I. Bright was 23, Portuguese, residing in Kakaako, son of Antone De Bright and Hanna Bright, both Portuguese and residing in Kakaako. Alice Kekipi was 18, daughter of the Reverend John Kekipi and Sara Kekipi, both of Kewalo. See also Tony Tadaro, “The musical Bright family,” in Paradise of the Pacific, December 1952, pp. 11-13. According to Tadaro, the “family name Bright came from the Spanish name Brillante. It was the name of Mr. Bright's father, who was Spanish.” One son was Andrew Iaukea Bright (1906 – 1956), the “ singing cowboy,” married to Laura Bessa (See Honolulu Star Bulletin, July 10, 1956, 1B; Honolulu Advertiser. July 11, 1956). He had brothers: Sol[omon] (b. 1909), John (b. 1905), Eli (b. 1907), Simeon (married to Dorothy Rogers), Kalani, Weedon, Benny, and Sampson (24 years of age in 1952); sisters Mrs. David S. (Hannah) Harris (b. 1908), Mrs. Robert (Sybil) Andrews. Mrs. Sal (Lei) Recca, and Alice K. Bright, “Miss Oahu of 1938.” (See Mary Cooke, “Sol Bright: musical ambassador.” in Honolulu Advertiser, March 16, 1973 D1.) Cooke states that Sol's grandfather was a Castilian Spaniard named Brito who stowed away on a sailing vessel bound for Hawaii, and later married a full-blooded Hawaiian woman, Hanamuahaleo Naihe, a great-granddaughter of Kamehameha I. The Rev. A.I. Bright permitted the children to speak the Hawaiian language only. See 1910 census of Hawaii E.D. 21, sh. 1-B. There Andrew Bright, carpenter, is said to have a father born in Portugal and a mother born in Hawaii. He and his wife, Alice, were living with her parents: John Kekipi, 49, preacher Protestant church, and Kaowiloa, 50. Their children were John, 9, Andrew, 4, Eli, 3, Hanna, 2, and Solomon, 5/12.

  • For C.L. Brito, see under M. Alameda above.

  • Victorio Brito, from the island of Fogo, was 23 years old in 1894, and had lived in Hawaii for 2 years. He was a laborer, living in Wailupe, Oahu.18 See Special Rights – Oahu, July 28, 1894 – 330.

  • Antone Brown of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (O-116) on May 27, 1860.

  • John Anton Burgo, who died at the age of 90 in 1954 after living in Hawaii for 74 years, born in the Cabo Verde Islands on January 6, 1864, jumped a whaling ship in Hawaii, he married Frances Faria and they had a daughter, Laura Burgo, married to Clarence F. Lewis, who were parents of Clarence P. Lewis, married to Mary Anne Colby, who had a son, Christopher Lewis, airlines worker.

  • The 1900 census, E.D. 24, sh. 39, has Domingos Cabral, 1884, born in São Nicolau, coming to Hawaii in 1882.

  • The Rev. Manuel Joseph Cardoso, born in Cabo Verde on October 7, 1868, a resident of Honolulu since about 1908, a widower, died in Honolulu on December 30, 1944. See Honolulu Advertiser January 2, 1945, p. 2, c. 2. He was 76 years of age, living at 1023A North School Street, and was survived by sons: Isaac (in the South Pacific War Zone), Joseph (in the U.S. merchant marine), a stepson: Oscar Green, and daughters: Mrs. David K. Robinson, Mrs. James L. Stewart, Mrs. Mary Kealoha, Mrs. Ida Guinden, Mrs. Esther Snay of New Jersey, and Mrs. Joseph Gilbert of California.

  • Manuel Cardoza, born in Cabo Verde on May 3, 1875, died in Honolulu on March 4, 1943. See Honolulu Star Bulletin, March 6, 1943, p. 4, c. 6 and Honolulu Advertiser March 6, 1943, p. 3, c. 1. The 1932-33 City Directory states: “Manuel J. Cardoza, auto opr h 3838b Claudine”. He was 67 at the time of his death; he was living then at 909 Wiliwili Street and was a former employee of Matson Navigation Co. for 30 years. He was survived by a widow: Mary Cardoza, 5 sons: Joseph, Benny, John, George of Honolulu, and Anthony of New York City and by 2 daughters: Mrs. Amy Isnor and Mrs. Bessie Cheney.

  • Celestrin of Cabo Verde and Hilo, Hawaii was aturalized (L-43) on September 20, 1853.

  • Antonio Fernandes Centeio, born in Rosario, Brava, Cabo Verde Islands on May 12, 1870, coming to Hawaii in c. 1894 (O Luso of December 11, 1915, p. 6, stated that Antonio F. Centeio, native of Brava, came to Hawaii 21 years previous, after a few months in the United States), married in 1902 to Antonia d'Ornellas Teixeira, born in Kauai (12/13/1886 – 05/27/1927). He resided in Honolulu from about 1897, had a general merchandise business on 1460 Lusitana Street since about 1930, and died December 8, 1940. Had nine children: George Fernandes Centeio (February 24, 1903 – December 13, 1967) bookkeper with Honolulu Motors, Catherine (b. 1905) was later a school teacher and principal and married Manuel Gomes from Madeira of the Honolulu Star Bulletin Publishing Company, William (1906), radio patrolman, Police Department, see his obituary in Honolulu Star Bulletin, June 23, 1969, D6:7; John (b. 1907), Frank or Francis (b. 1908), Benjamin, famous as a track star at the University of Hawaii, who also played football under Coach Klum and played baseball for the Hawaii League Braves, Athena (Mrs. Charles Fernandes, once president of the Portuguese Pioneer Civic Association), Anthony, Jr., and Wilfred. (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 178); 1910 census E.D. 35, 30B under the surname Centiva [Index Oahu Co. 261 with Antone, August, Antone F., Antonia F., Francis, George, John, Kate, William]; Honolulu Advertiser, December 9, 1940 p. 5,c.5; Honolulu Star Bulletin, December 9, 1940, p.1, c.2) Barbara Ann (Mrs. Roy Hitoshi) Yamashita is William's daughter. Catherine (Katie) Gomes, Antonio F. Centeio's daughter said that he came to Hawaii as captain of his own ship.

  • The name of Antonio Coelho, 28, Fowler's Yard, appears in the Great Register of Voters for 1887.

  • For William J.H. Coelho, and William J. Coelho, sometimes spelled Cuelho, see under Manuel Quail.

  • The name of John Cook, also known as Joaquim Maliia, 57, laborer, Piihonua, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887. He was naturalized on December 1, 1868, (P-122).

  • Daniel of Cabo Verde and Hilo was naturalized (O-4) on January 7, 1859.

  • Ruffino Daniel of Cabo Verde was naturalized on June 9, 1851; (K-9).

  • Christiano Daviza, Black, born in 1860, came in 1877, married for 17 years, a prisoner, stone cutter, in the Hilo Jail. See 1900 census E.D. 61, sheet 22.

  • Dinel of Cabo Verde was naturalized on January 12, 1854, (H-14).

  • Antone Domingo or Domingos of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde, and Kalihi, was naturalized (O-66) on June 18, 1859. Probate 1st circuit court 207 has Antone Domingos, naturalized, living in Ewa who died of a fever in Waialua June 22, 1870, leaving a widow, Hoohuli or Hookuli. On November 19, 1867 took place in Honolulu the wedding of Antonius Domingo of Waimano and Tecla Ohuli of Puunui. Witnesses of the will were Kaanaana, Aur[elio] Forte, and Francisco Rodrigues. He had a son, Farani or Frank. Antone Domingo of Kalihi and wife, Ohule, took over a mortgage of property belonging to Andrew Fogo on February 3, 1868.

  • Frank Domingo, Black, born in Portugal in 1836, who came in 1879 as laborer, according to the 1900 census, E.D. 25 sheet 3).

  • Alika Aires or Ayeres Duarte – The 1900 census lists Alika Duarte, from Cabo Verde, also listed as Alicee Duarte. He was grandfather of Harry Paiaina if Honolulu, (808) 531-2208. See also Aires or Aueres Duarte, husband of Mileka Paiaina, sister of Keawe Paiaina, in the Whalers file. He was born in about 1852. On May 18, 1875 took place in Honolulu the marriage of Ayeres Duarte of Puunui, Honolulu and Kileka (really Mileka Paiaina, sister of Keawe Paiaina of Kamoiliili, Kona, Oahu). On January 27, 1877 was baptized Helena ex-Aires Duarti et Merika. Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 178; 1910 census E.D. 35, 30B second wife, Helena or Ellen Duarte, was born in Hawaii in April 1876. The 1890 census has Aleck Duarte and Mileka. The 1900 census, vol. 2, E.D 50, sh. 11, l. 31 has Alicu Duarte of North Kona, wife Melika (born in Hawaii in 1858) with children Antone, Maria, Emilia, John, Maria. The 1910 census has Alexander Duarte, 58, with children Antone, Maria, Elena, and granddaughter, Francisca Coelho, 2. See 1920 census, vol. 3, E.D. 103, 18 for Alika Duarte, 69. The 1900 census lists Alika Duarte, from Cabo Verde, also listed as Alicee Duarte. He was grandfather of Harry Paiaina of Honolulu, (808) 531-2208. See also Aires or Aueres Duarte, husband of Mileka Paiaina, sister of Keawe Paiaina, in the Whalers file.

  • Henry Antone Duarte, born September 20, 1877 in the Cabo Verde islands, was stadium custodian. For obituary see newspapers c. April 15, 1955. He was survived by his wife, Mary S. Duarte, and children: Theresa Chock, Louis A. Duarte, John T. Duarte, Joseph R. Duarte, Frank G. Duarte, Richard B. Duarte of Honolulu and Albert F. Duarte of San Mateo, California. See 1910 census index Hawaii Co 081 North Kohala for Henry, Joe, John, Louise, Maria S., Theresa Duarte.

  • Joseph Edwards, born in Hawaii in 1882, blacksmith, with parents born in Cabo Verde and Hawaii, married to Margaret, born in 1892. See 1910 census, E.D. 50, 20B-Oahu Co. 020.

  • Antonio Enos of Natal, Cabo Verde and Waikiki was naturalized (N-104) on November 17, 1855.

  • John Espery of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde and Moanalua, was naturalized (O-426) on January 22, 1866.

  • Joe Felix, born in São Nicolauu in October 1858, who came to Hawaii in 1880 (see census of 1900, vol. 11, E.D. 24, sh. 5) with wife, Ana, born in Hawaii in February 1866, of father from São Nicolau and mother born in Hawaii. They had children: Tomar, son, (b. October 1883); Richard, (b. July 1886); Mariana (b. April 1888); Antone (b. December 1891) and Joe (b. May 1897).

  • Manuel Feloa of Fogo, Cabo Verde was naturalized (O-183) on July 2, 1861.

  • Manoel A. Ferdinand, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 62 years old, had lived 40 years in Hawaii, lived on Beretania Street, Honolulu.19 See Special Rights Oahu 1894 September 13 – 1005.

  • The name of Domingo Fernandez, 28, laborer at Halaula, Hawaii, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887 from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • Paulino Antone Fernandez, 42, of the Cabo Verde islands, appears in the 1920 census, vol. 17, E.D. 89. sh. 18, living at Puunene, Maui, with wife, Julia, 33, born in Hawaii, and children: Elda, 14, Antone, Jr., 12, Maggie, 11, Lily, 9, Luis, 7, David, 5, Addie, 3, Julia, 2, John, 1/2.

  • Antonio Filipi, Caboverdeano, was naturalized (I-37) on March 28, 1850.

  • Andrew Fogo or Fogi of the island of Fogo, Cabo Verde Islands, was naturalized on January 14, 1862 (O-237). He died on February 6, 1869 at the age of 39, a sailor and a bachelor. He obtained land from José Araisa by deed June 16, 1859 and mortgaged it on December 26, 1867 by deed, Liber 24, mortgages, 462-463). Antone Domingo and his wife, Ohule, obtained the mortgage on February 3, 1868.

  • The name of John Pook (John Fogo) appears in the list of naturalizations, (P-122), December 1, 1868, Kawiki, Hawaii, from Santo Tomé, Cabo Verde. He was also known as Keoni Poko.

  • Bill Fogo is mentioned in Andrew Farrell's edition of Lorrin Andrews Thurston's Writings, pages 22 and 23 (Honolulu: Advertiser Publishing Co., Ltd., 1931):
    My saddle… was stolen. I reported the theft… and knowledge of it came to the ears of one of our neighbors, a black Portuguese, who had come to Hawaii from the island of Fogo, off the African coast, and was known as Bill ‘Fogo.’ He was the lessee of a small ranch and the owner of a few head of cattle, and made butter for the Honolulu market. He was so sympathetic with me that he dropped his work and accompanied me to Wailuku, where we spent the whole day in a vain search for the saddle. Failing to find it, he paid $35 for a Mexican saddle of black leather, which he presented to me, without any expectation of reward—it was an expression of sheer kind-heartedness and generosity.
    The incident must have taken place between 1868 and 1874.

  • Francis Franks,* born in Providence, Rhode Island, August 22, 1889, arrived in Hawaii in 1890. See 1910 census E.D. 33, sh. 20A-Oahu Co. 199, where Francis Franks is listed as a house painter. Francis Franks later became Vice-President and Treasurer of the Hawaiian Trust Co., Ltd. in Honolulu, HI. Francis Franks father, John Franks or Frank, was born June 19, 1846 on the Cabo Verde Islands and came to Hawaii in about 1890. He was connected with the Wilder Steamship Co. Ltd., and later the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., retiring from the sea in 1924. He was also listed as a housepainting contractor. (Honolulu Advertiser, December 3, 1940, p. 1). In 1884, John Franks married Eulalia Fernandez Franks (1858 – 1915) who was born in Funchal, Madeira, and had arrived in Hawaii in 1874. The other children of John and Eulalia Franks include: Mrs. Arcenia (Franks) Gomes (b. 1885 in Cape Verde) of Glendale, CA; Mrs. Annie (Franks) Canha (b. 1887 in Providence, RI) of Honolulu, HI; Louis “Lui” Franks (b. 1891 in Honolulu, HI, who never retired from the sea; Joseph “Joe” Franks (b. 1895 in Honolulu, HI) of Honolulu, HI, who worked with contractor M.J. Serpa. Mrs. Lucina “Lucy” (Franks) Drummond (b. 1896 in Hilo, HI) [Lucy married Robert Drummond on 29 November 1924 and divorced him on 21 July 1925.] Honolulu Advertiser, December 2, 1924, p. 5, c. 7) she was a public school teacher; and Alfred “Freddie” Franks (b. 1898 in Honolulu, HI) of Kaneohe, HI, worked at the Niumalu Hotel. On July 6, 1917 Francis Franks married Carmen Grace Dias (6/18/1898 – 8/24/1954). Francis Franks died in Oakland, CA, on September 19, 1950 (Honolulu Advertiser, September 20, 1950, p. 3:4) Carmen Franks died in Oakland, CA, on August 24, 1954. (See Honolulu Star Bulletin, August 26, 1954, p. 28). Carmina Dias was sister to: Mrs. Lydia (Dias) Soares (b. 1892), Mrs. Clothilde (Dias) Faria (b. 1898), Mrs. Alzira (Dias) Canha (b. 1896), and Theodore V. Dias (b. 1906). Francis and Carmen’s children were: Mrs. Eulalia “Irene” (Franks) Pacheco of Oakland (b. 1918), Mrs. Frances Carmen (Franks) Moore of Mountain View, Hawaii (b. 1920), and John “Earl” Franks of Oakland and Honolulu (b. 1927) Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 226.

  • Joe Frates or Fratis of Brava, Cabo Verde, was naturalized (P-87) on April 11, 1868 and on the same day married to Paikana.

  • Antonio George of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde was naturalized (N-308) on April 30, 1857.

  • Gigi, the 1900 census, E,D. 20, sh. 3 gives Gigi, born in 1834 in the Cabo Verde islands, coming to Hawaii in 1860.

  • Joaquim Gomes of Cabo Verde was naturalized (O-289) on July 7, 1863.

  • John José Gomes, born in Brava, Cabo Verde Islands, to José Gomes and Arsenia Pina; married to Maria Julia Medeiros, of Fajã de Baixo, S. Miguel, daughter of Jacintho Medeiros and Francisca Emilia Bento, São Miguel. He was resident of Hawi from 1902. Was an overseer on the plantation, the Kohala Sugar Company. He owned property and had children: Laura and Violante (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 21).

  • José Vicente Gomes, from Brava, was a founding member of the St. Antonio Society. He died sometime before February 14, 1893 in a San Francisco hospital; he was a cook for the crew of the ship S.S. Claudine. The name of Joe Gumes, 50, cook, Emma Street, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

  • Joseph Gomes of Cabo Verde was naturalized (P-186) on December 2, 1869. Possibly José Vicente Gomes.

  • Manuel Gomes of Fogo was naturlized on December 15, 1862, (O-284).

  • Manuel Gomez of Cabo Verde was naturalized (I-63) on December 29, 1853.

  • Peter Gomez, as Negro, appears in the 1900 census, vol. 2, E.D. 54, sh. 22, born in Portugal in 1840, stone mason, living in Kau, married 16 years to his wife, Phillema, born in Portugal in February 1860, with children: Antone (b. June 1889), John (b. August 1891), Joseph (b. August 1892), Maria (b. December 1894), Emanuel (b. November 1895), Malinda (b. June 1896), Isabella (b. January 1897), Virginia (b. February 1900). The third son was probably Sgt. Joseph P. Gomes, 16 years a police officer, born in Maui, died at the age of 78 on about November 26, 1969 (See Honolulu Star Bulletin, November, 26, 1969; Honolulu Advertiser, November 27, 1969, survived by widow: née Carolyn Rivers (September 29, 1889 Hawi, Kohala - June 1, 1955).

  • Julian Gonsalves, 35, teamster, Piikoi Street, appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887 as from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • The name of Louis Gonsalves, 58, laborer, Kalihi, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887 as from the Cabo Verde Islands. See Pacific Commercial Advertiser, of July 22, 1871, p. 3, November 4, 1871, p. 3, February 17, 1872 for his work on a milk-ranch in the neighborhood of Honolulu and domestic problems. See also Whalers, for his marriage. A Louis Gonsalves of Brava was naturalized on October 3, 1863, (O-273). Louis Gonsalves (born March 1840 in Brava, Cape Verde) married Catherine Kauwa (b. September 1852) their son was Louis Manini Gonsalves (1865 – 27 February 1924) married to Mary Kaniniu Liilii Kapiko (about 1870 – about 1926). Their children were Annie (5/9/1893 – 2/18/1957), Peter Gonsalves (b. 1890), Ceciia (b. 1889), and Manuel (b. 1887). Annie Manini Gonsalves was married on 22 August 1908 to Sun Fun Sam Fong (1868 – 1939). They had a son William Palenapa Sam Fong (2 September 1902 – died 25 February 1954).

  • Manuel João Gonçalves, born in Brava, Cabo Verde Islands (1870?-1937), married to Maria Rodrigues Castanha (November 17, 1882-March 8, 1958) [see Honolulu Advertiser 3/12/58, A5:1], born in Madeira to Manuel Rodrigues Castanha (March 17, 1845 – December 9, 1935) and Maria de Jesus Camara Castanha (November 10, 1853 – July 10, 1936), and came to Hawaii in about 1885. He was a resident of Kalihi Uka, at 2603 Kalihi, from about 1891 and worked for the Wilder Steam Ship Co., had a ranch and farm business and from about 1919 had been janitor of Kalihi Uka School; owned property and had children: Mrs. Joseph (Julia) Magone (b. 1906) of Pasadena, Mrs. Louis (Maria) Camacho of Honolulu, Mrs. Angelica or Angela Caires of San Leandro, CA, (b. 1909), João or John F. Gonsalves of Long Beach, CA, Magdalena, Mrs. Paul (Virginia) Lipinski of Chicago, IL, and Gabriel P. Gonsalves, born in Kohala. Gabriel died October 1, 1966, at the age of 53 at 214 Waimeli Place, Honolulu. He was survived by Mrs. Flora Gonsalves; and Mrs. Eliza Jardine, Antone, and Joaquine (see Honolulu Advertiser, October 21, 1966, D3:2) as well as perhaps a daughter Margaret (9/17/1910 – 2/12/1925). (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 170). See also 1910 census, E.D. 48, 7B-Honolulu 136, when they were living at Kaiulani Tract. At this time, the birth years of the parents seem to have been in about 1870 and 1881. He is said to have had a love affair with a Hawaiian woman, whom he abandoned, and who later wished bad luck on the family through the efforts of a Hawaiian kahuna.

  • Theophilo Grace who was born in Cabo Verde on March 6, 1857, was a retired coffee planter at the time of his death in Honolulu on April 28, 1944. See Honolulu Advertiser, April 29, 1944, p. 5, c. 1 and Honolulu Star Bulletin April 29, 1944, p. 5, c. 3. He lived at 6078 Kalanianaole Highway and was survived by a brother: Julio Grace, 2 daughters: Mrs. Jennie Cabral and Mrs. Mary Correa; 3 sons: Mathias Grace, Charles Grace, and Antonio Grace.

  • The Register of Voters for 1887-1888 gives as living on Oahu John Gracia, 58, Kalihi, from Cabo Verde, a laborer.

  • Julia [née Richard?] Guerrero, wife of [Joseph] Guerrero of Guam, who was born in December 1861. Julia was born to a father from São Nicolau and mother from Hawaii in Hawaii in December of 1863(?) and was the mother of seven children: Julia (b. October 1885), Rosa (b. March 1886), Frank (b. February 1889), Mariano (b. March 1891), Jos. Liuai (b. February 1892), Antonio S.M.. (b.June 1897), and Annie (b. November 1899). They lived together with a boarder, possibly her brother, Nicholas Richard, born in November 1881 in Hawaii of father from São Nicolau and mother from Hawaii. Joseph Guerrero was a policeman according to city directories of 1899 and 1900. He was listed as a salesman by the census. See under Richard also.

  • Joseph Haywood, 42, mulatto, born in São Vicente, as were his parents, is listed by the 1910 census E.D. 41, 3B-Honolulu 156 as a laborer with 1900 as the year of his arrival in Hawaii. He was married to Jessie, 36, part-Hawaiian, born of Portuguese parents, and they had children: Henry, 18, and Manuel, 6, born in Hawaii. They lived on Cunha Lane.

  • Peter Hose See Honolulu Advertiser January 5, 1925, p. 1, for item:
    Famous Hula Cop dies of tuberculosis:” “Peter Hose, Honolulu's ‘Hula Cop,’ big, smiling, hearty, known by nearly every man, woman and child in Honolulu and easily remembered by tens of thousands of world tourists who have passed through Honolulu the last 18 years, is no more. ‘Pete ’ made a gallant, though a losing, fight. One morning… he left Leahi for home. ‘I know I am going to die,’ he said, ‘and I am going to die home, among my own kin folks.’ He died last evening at his home, 1556B Ahiahi street. Born in Kahauiki, this island, September 29. 1881. He was connected with the city police force for 18 years, serving long as a traffic cop. For a time he was out of the police service, holding the position of overseer of school janitors. Returning to the force, he was put on waterfront duty. He was a member of the Lusitana Society, his father being a native of the Cabo Verde Islands belonging to Portugal. He is survived by his widow and a grandchild. There is also a stepson, Solomon Haumea.
    His widow, Mrs. Hattie Hose, a native of Hana, Maui, died at the age of 59(?) in December, 1931, and was buried in the Puna Cemetery. A bronze tablet was made in his memory (see newspaper items: February 11, 1927, March 19, 1927); it was moved from the Emma-Lusitana-Iolani corner to the cannon island at Queen and Fort Streets. (See newspaper items for September 26, 1933 and June 2, 1940). John Scott Boyd Pratt noted in The Hawaii I Remember (Kaneohe: Tongg, 1965), p. 24:
    One more colorful person comes to mind, the ‘Hula Cop,’ Peter Jose. He stood daily at Fort and Merchant, sometimes at the bad corner of Emma, School, and Lusitana. As he directed the traffic, he used his hand as in a hula and for that reason he was known as the Hula Cop. He was very friendly and popular.”
    His mother, Malia Pedro Nicholas, widow of Antonio Lawrence Pedro, was born in Honolulu on July 12, 1832, and died there April 28, 1943. See Honolulu Advertiser, 1943 Apr 29, p3, c3. There was more than one “hula cop.” See Espinda (Leonard Michael) under Espinda, Whalers File.

  • F. Houghton of Cabo Verde was naturalized on February 24, 1866.

  • Joseph Innis of (Enos or Ignacio?) Brava, Cabo Verde was naturalized (N-361) on November 17, 1857.

  • Manuel Patrecinio Jerves, born in Lihue, Kauai, April 15, 1893, son of Madeiran parents. He married Anna Maria Pereira (July 8, 1894 – November 2, 1948), daughter of Manuel Joaquim Pereira (Cabo Verde Islands), and Christina da Conceição Cabral of São Miguel. He was resident of Kalaheo, Kauai, from 1895, and worked in the Pineapple Plantation. They had four children who were minors in 1930; Christine, Bernard, Bernice, and Veronica. (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 136) [1910 census Kauai Co. 073 Kaloa district]. His death took place August 7, 1942. He was a veteran of the 2nd Hawaiian Infantry Regiment in WW1.

  • Antone Joaquim – Naturalization (O-314) has Antone Joaquim of Boa Vista, Cabo Verde and Honolulu for October 31, 1863. On October 31, 1863 took place the marriage of Antonius Joseph and Awili.

  • Antonio Joaquim – Naturalization (P-201) has Antonio Joaquim of Cabo Verde and Waimalu, Ewa on January 29, 1870. He might be the man from Santo Antão who, in 1894, was 63 years of age, and had lived in Hawaii then for 30 years, and was a rancher living in Kula.

  • Manuel Joaquim, from Santo Antão, in 1894, was aged 63, had lived in Hawaii for 30 years, was a rancher, living in Kula, Maui.20 The 1910 census Maui Co. 272 - Kamaole has Naturalization for Miguel Joaquim of Santo Antão, Cabo Verde and Molokai for on February 2, 1867 (P-10).

  • Peter Joaquim, from Cabo Verde, was in 1894 59 years old, who had lived 30 years in Hawaii, was a laborer and lived in North Kohala, Hawaii. 21See Special Rights for West Hawaii, July 30, 1894 - 19. [1910 census? Honolulu 125] The Great Register of Voters of 1887 gives Peter Joaquim, 41, laborer of Puehuehu, Hawaii from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • Antonio José, from Cabo Verde, residing in Honolulu, received Passport No 893 in 1850. He was 33, a laborer, 5 feet 8 inches, with dark hair, dark eyes, sallow physiognomy. There were marriages on Maui of Antone José to Pekana on May 29, 1872 and to Kaaipuni on January 25, 1873 on the island of Maui. O Luso, July 29, 1911, p. 4 mentioned the death of Antonio José, 19, son of the Ewaluna, Antonio José. See Antonio Joseph, Caboverdeano, naturalized on January 18, 1845, C-87. Also Antone Jose, Caboverdeano, naturalized on December 2, 1872, P-318.

  • There was a Manuel Joseph of Cabo Verde naturalized on January 12, 1854, without number.

  • Manuel Joseph of Cabo Verde and Lahaina was naturalized (N-124) on December 10, 1855.

  • Peter Joseph, from the Cabo Verde islands, in 1894 was 32 years old, had lived 17 years in Hawaii, was a rancher, and lived in Kula, Maui.22 [1910 census-Maui Co. 017 Kipahula or 267 Kamaole]

  • The Great Register of Voters of 1887 carries the name of Rodero Joseph, 32, laborer, Kapalama, from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • Joseph of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde and Ewa was naturalized (O-96) on January 14, 1860.

  • Thomas Joseph of Cabo Verde and Ewa was naturalized (N-59) on July 2, 1855.

  • J. F. King of Fayal, Cabo Verde, and Waikapu was naturalized (N-37) on April 9, 1855.

  • Ricardo Antonio Lavelli or Nazevelhe of Cabo Verde and Moanalua was naturalized (O-298) on May 18, 1863. Could this be Ricardo Antonio Xavier?

  • Andrew Lawrence of Cabo Verde was naturalized (O-18) on February 3, 1859.

  • Antonio Joaquim Lopes, from Boa Vista, was a founding member of the St. Antonio Society. See 1st Circuit Court will No. 331. He was a rancher in Waialua according to the 1909 city directory. In 1894 he was 64 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 35 years. He was a rancher, living in Waialua, Oahu. 23 See Special Rights Oahu August 31, 1894 – 794. He died in Waialua on March 9, 1908. His children were: Antone Joaquin Lopez (1890 – 1969), Rosa Lopez Medeiros (1892 – 1952), Clara Lopez Abdul (1893 – 1942), Manuel Joaquin Lopez (1894 – 1948), Caesar Lopez (1896 – 1957), Richard Joaquin Lopez (1897 – 1978), Christina Lopez Tavares (1898 – 1970), and a godson Joseph Pimental Medeiros (1883 – 1946). The last-mentioned J. P. Medeiros married Helen Guerreiro on February 17, 1906.

  • Bras Lopes of Fogo WI was naturalized on January 10, 2867 (P-5).

  • [The Register of Voters of 1887 – 1888 gives Christian Lopes, 47, born in the Cabo Verde Islands, laborer, living at Moanalua on Oahu. Possibly the same as the following entry.]

  • The Register of Voters of 1887 – 1888 gives Christopher Lopes, 47, laborer, Kapalama as from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • Antone Lopez of Cabo Verde was naturalized (P-199) on January 17, 1870.

  • Christian Lopez – See Pacific Commercial Advertiser, July 22, 1871, p. 3, November 4, 1871, p. 3, and February 17, 1872 for problems between Christian Lopez, Portuguese of African ancestry employed as driver of a milk-wagon and his co-worker, Luis Gonsalves, over the latter's wife. See Christian Lopes.

  • The Great Register of Voters of 1887 gives Edward Lopez, Puehuehu, Hawaii, 32? laborer from the Cabo Verde Islands. He may be the same person as Edwardo José Lopes, native of the island of Fogo, who came to Hawaii “30 years ago” according to O Luso of December 11, 1915, p. 6.

  • Joao Lopez – The name of Joao Lopez, 40, physician, Punchbowl Street, appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887 as from the Cabo Verde Islands. See Special Rights September 12, 1894 - 999.

  • Joe Lopes (?), from Santo Antão, in 1894 was 30 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 17 years, was a rancher, living in Kula, Maui.24 [1910 census? Maui Co.176 Hamakuapoko]

  • The name of Jose Lopez, 24, laborer, Halaula, Hawaii appears on the Great Register of 1887 as from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • José Antone Lopez or Joe Anton Lopez, from Cabo Verde, was 35 years old in 1894. He had lived in Hawaii for 19 years and was a laborer. See Special Rights Oahu August 15, 1894 - 590.

  • One Joe Lopez was steward on the S.S. Australia.40 [1910 Census Oahu Co. 020?]

  • Joseph Lopez, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 32 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 13 years, was a teamster and lived on Lunalilo Street, Honolulu. 26 [1910 census-134 or 155 Honolulu].

  • Lawrence Lopez of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (O-370) on December 28, 1854.

  • Manuel Lops(?) of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (H-32) on May 17, 1849. Matthew Lopez The Friend November 11, 1857 p. 88, c. 3 had Matthew Lopez, native of Cabo Verde, died at sea on board ship October 25, 1857. Pacific Commercial Advertiser, 1857 November 12, p. 2 c. 1.

  • Pedro Lopez, from Cabo Verde, residing in Lahaina, obtained in 1849 Passport no. 424. He was 25 years old, a shoemaker, was 5 feet 9 inches with black hair, black eyes, and dark physiognomy. A Peter Lopez of Cabo Verde was naturalized (G-91) on November 29, 1848.

  • The name of Philip Lopez, 50, Fowler's Yard from Cabo Verde Islands appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

  • Seraphine Lopez, Caucasian, dairyman, born in 1859 in Cabo Verde, who came to Hawaii in 1880, with wife, Hawaiian, Pakela or Pakele and children: Keania (b. 1891), Louis (b. 1892), Seraphine, Jr. (b. 1893), Maria (b. 1894), Kalata (b. 1895), Kamaki (b. 1896), John (b. 1897). See 1900 census, E.D. 49, sheet 9, and 1910 census-Hawaii Co. 055-056 South Kona for Koma, Marlin, Pakele, Serofin Lopes].

  • Edwart Lopila (b. 1861) came to Hawaii in 1885 and married Mary G. (b. 1878). Mary G. came to Hawaii in 1884. Their children were: Edwart (b. 1900), Floria (b. 1900), John (b. 1904), Rosline (b. 1906). See 1910 census ED35, 31A-Oahu Co. 263.

  • Joseph Lorenzo The Friend of 1846 December 1 p.183 c2, died November 10, 1846 at age of 25, from Cabo Verde.

  • Joe/Joseph Lutero (see Honolulu Advertiser, December 24, 1942, p. 5, c. 3 and Honolulu Star Bulletin 1942 December 23 p9 c. 2) born in October 1845 São Nicolau, Portugal, came to the islands on a whaling ship from São Miguel (67 years prior to death) in 1875. He died on December 23, 1942 at the age of 89 years. He was foreman at the Honolulu Iron Works. He had a son, Peter Lutero, and 6 daughters: Mrs. Peter Perry, Mrs. Joseph Barros of California, Mrs. Dorothy Reyes, Mrs. Fannie Trabus (b. 1892), Mrs. Julius H. Vonderwall, Mrs. William Rogers who survived him at his death on December 23, 1942. He had a daughter, Mary or Maria Melekule Lutero, born in 1893, who died 11/22/1928, and his wife was Nathalie Lutero, born on June 1862 in Hawaii of a father from São Nicolau and a mother from Hawaii, who died November 28, 19??. (See 1900 census E.D. 24, sh. 4). In the 1910 census, E.D. 48, 30B-Honolulu 159, he was 63 years old and had been married for 3 years to Mary D., born in Hawaii of Hawaii-born parents who was 30. He lived at 1156 Richard Lane, Honolulu. The Great Register of Voters of 1887 has a Kalihi Joe Lutherio, 37, laborer as from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • The name of Antonio José de Luz, 25, laborer, Halawa, Hawaii, appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887 as coming from the Cabo Verde Islands.

  • For Joaquim Maliia, see above Manuel Cook.

  • Antonio Manteiro of Cabo Verde was naturalized (P-8) on January 26, 1867.

  • See Naturalization (P-134) for Maxamera or Alexandre Manoel of Brava, Cabo Verde, and Hilo on 22 February 1869.

  • See Naturalization , January 5, 1857 (N-282) for Antone Manuel, Caboverdeano.

  • Antonio Manuel, from São Nicolau, Cabo Verde Islands, was naturalized in 1849, (H-17). He received land in Hawaii, according to 1843 British Commission Land Claims Records in 1823 and in 1834. One Antonio Manuel married the daughter, Ellen (Olina), of Don Francisco de Paula Marin. They had a child, (O-237) (1843 – 1880), married to Kalehua Kukuahi. Their son was John Francis Manuel, married in 1902 to Rose Puni[u]haole, parents of Kalehua Manuel (b. 1903) married to Antone Lopez, father of Catherine Lopez, married to Elias Garcia, John Lopez, Dorothy and Dolores Lopez, twins, the latter of whom married Alfred M. Hoopii, Antone Lopez, Ernest Lopez, father of Rose Kalehua (b. 1936) who married Harold Lyau (d. 1980). Antone Manuel (May 5, 1873 – July 2, 1946) was Territorial Deputy High Sheriff. (See Honolulu Advertiser, July 25, 1946, p. 2, c. 5) Another Antonio Manuel died November 23, 1876 at the age of 47. (See Hawaiian Gazette, November 26, 1876, p. 3, c. 1). And Antonio W. Manuel died March 2, 1875 aged 22. (See The Friend, April 1875, p. 29). Another Antonio Manuel married Theresa Souza on December 9, 1899 in Honolulu. Mrs. Luahine K. Manuel died in Honolulu December 31, 1940 over 90 years of age. (The Friend, February 1911, p. 24, c. 2).

  • There was also a son John Manini Manuel, born in May 1904 in Honolulu, who died at the age of 48 on September 4, 1952 (Honolulu Advertiser September 6, 1952 II 11.6), foreman at Matson Steamship Co., survived by a widow, Cecilia Kikilia Mahi, born on June 12, 1922, and six sons: John (b. January 26, 1942), Henry (b. March 4, 1943), Paul M. (b. Feb 21, 1944), James (b. April 18, 1946), Alfred Kawai (b. June 16, 1947, deceased), Everertt(e) (b. December 15, 1948), adopted by James Whitney, and Charles (b. December 15, 1949), not married but with two twin daughters by Amora Luna: Jeanine and Jeanelle Luna, and two daughters: Mrs. Alice Santos, by his first wife, Alice Parker, and Philiminia M. Manuel (b. May 29, 1940), married to Ernesto C. Padapat with children Ernesto (b. 1966), Cecilia (b. 1968), Alejandra (b. 1972), and Charlene (b. 1973), a brother, Paul J. Manini [sic], a sister, Mrs. Rose Kupau.

  • Joseph H. Manuel, married to Sapuahole on January 19, 1855. He may have been Joseph Manuel, of Fayal; naturalized November 11, 1845 (C-191). The 1900 census gives Joseph Manuele, born in Portugal Setember 1821, and wife, Kapuli, born in 1840 in Hawaii, resident in Koolauopoko. They had been married 35 years; he had been in Hawaii since 1835. We have thought he must be the Reverend Manuel, a Protestant minister, considered Black by Fr. Yzendoorn. The evidence is not conclusive. The minister served as School Agent of the Board of Education in the years 1880-1885. He remains in some ways a man of mystery. Louis Manuel, laborer, Caucasian, born May 1865 in São Nicolau, who came in 1880 to Hawaii; he was married to Augusta, Caucasian, born in February 1875 in Hawaii, and arriving in Hawaii in 1883. They were living on the Hamakua Coast. See 1900 census E.D. 47 sheet 30A. Laie lists a Kilohi Manuel (December 7 1881 – May 8, 1937), son of Louis Manuel and Mama Kapu Kekahuna. The name of Lui Manuel, 35, laborer, Waihee, Maui, appears as from the Cabo Verde Islands in the great Register of Voters of 1887.

  • Antonio or Antone McGill of Cabo Verde and Lahaina was naturalized (N-3) on December 30, 1854. McGill may be for Miguel.

  • The name of José Mendes, 60, Beretania Street from the Cabo Verde Islands appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887. Among the founders and charter members of the St. Antonio Society was a José Mendes of Madeira. Could this be the same man?

  • Michael Mendes, Caboverdeano, was naturalized (E-11) on December 10, 1884.

  • John Miguel, born in Santo Antão, Cabo Verde Islands on August 17, 1855, came to Hawaii in 1877, married to Carolina Moniz, (born in Furnas, São Miguel October 5, 1878 and deceased August 20, 1947 on Maui), on June 10, 1895. He lived in Kula, [Maui] from 1877, owning a farm, and ranch business.27 There were at least fifteen children: Manuel (b. 1896), Maria (b. 1897), John, Jr. (b. 1901), with the Makawao Water Works, Joseph (b .1902), Nicolau (b. 1903), Antonia (b. 1904), Frank (b. 1905), Lucy (b. 1907), Antone (b. 1909), Rosa, Alfred, Claudino, Margaret, Ludovina, Marcellino, and Lewis. (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 89) [1910 census Maui Co. 272-Kamaole, E.D. 90, 18A]. He died on December 11, 1941, and is buried in Kula.

  • Joseph Miguel of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde and Lihue, Oahu [sic] was naturalized (O-189) on February 20, 1861.

  • Henry Miller of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (L-107) on April 13, 1854.

  • Listed by the 1900 census, E.D. 20, sh. 3, Cabo Verdean Antone Miranda, born in 1874, came to Hawaii in 1898, a milker.

  • M[anuel] R. Miranda, of Cabo Verde, in 1894 was a luna (plantation overseer), aged 36, had lived in Hawaii for 5 years and lived on Punchbowl Street, Honolulu. 28 [1910 census? Oahu Co. 237] See Special Rights Oahu August 4, 1894-483.

  • Joe Montaro, from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 26 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 9 years, was a rancher, and lived in Holualoa, Kona, Hawaii.29 See Special Rights for West Hawaii August 10, 1894 - 104.

  • Pedro J. Montaro (see Pedro Joaquim Monteiro)

  • Antonio Monteiro of Santo Antão, Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (P-8) on January 26, 1867.

  • Joao Monteiro of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (O-137) on August 18, 1860.

  • Pedro Joaquim Monteiro or Montaro of Cabo Verde and Kailua, Koolau, Oahu was naturalized (P-317) on November 2, 1872.

  • Louis Montero, engineer, born in Hawaii in about 1877, of Portuguese and Hawaiian parents, listed as mulatto by 1910 census (E.D. 55, 3A-Oahu Co.190) with Hawaiian wife Mary (b. 1884), and children: Millie (1899) and Hattie (1907), perhaps of Waipahu.

  • A part-Hawaiian named Antone Montero, born May 1874, was living with wife Mary (born in Hawaii in 1877) in Koolauloa, Oahu, according to 1900 census, vol. 12, E.D. 36, sheet 19, line 2. (See 1910 census Honolulu 020 - Kahuku Village).

  • John Dwart Moraz (Duarte Moraes?), from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 30 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 10 years, lived in North Kohala, Hawaii, and was a laborer. See Special Rights July 31, 1894 - 39.

  • The name of Joao Duarte Moraes, 23, laborer, Halaula, Hawaii from the Cabo Verde Islands appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

  • The name of Nicholas, 37, laborer, Waihee, from the Cabo Verde Islands appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887. Nickolao (or Nicholas) and Puleka (or Huleka) Paalai, later Akana, born in 1860, had a daughter Abigail, born in Wailuku in October or November 2, 1881. On 22 November 1881 was born a child Abigail to Nicolau and Puleka (or Huleka) Paalai in Wailuku. Her parents were both born in Hawaii. See 1910 census, E.D. 81, sh 1A for Joe Rodrigues, 30, and wife, Abigail. For Huleka, 1910 census E.D. 81 sh 9B and 1900 census vol. 8 E.D. 102 sh 27 l.7.

  • Naturalization 445(?) has Fnsco. Niclao or Nicles of São Nicolau, Calaveras [Cabo Verde] islands, and Honolulu on November 30, 1858.

  • Nicholas Nichol of São Nicolau, Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (O-71) on October 13, 1859.

  • The Uniao Lusitana-Hawaiana, of March 18, 1893 reported the death on March 15, 1893 of Justinianno Nunes of the island of Fogo, aged 34. He left a widow and four children.

  • Lourenço Paw, born in Santo Antão, Cabo Verde Islands, resident in Honolulu, got (Passport no. 642) in 1849. He was 23, a shopkeeper, 5 feet 6 inches, with black hair, dark eyes, and yellow physiognomy.

  • Laie records show Antone (Natos) Pedro, Sr., born about 1838 to 1845 in Santo Antão, married to (Kepola) Kahoohuli Koenaia (born about 1840 to 1849 on Molokai), with children: Antone Ramos Pedro, Jr. (May 23, 1873 – September 5, 1959), married about 1893 to Malia Maluaka Kaluaaie (c. 1877 to 1912).

  • Joaquim Santos Pereira, born in Waimea, Kauai, in 1896, son of Manuel Joaquim Pereira (See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 999) and Christina da Conceição, married to Guilhermina or Minnie Gertrudes Abreu, born in Makaweli of a Madeiran father and mother from Sã o Miguel. After living in Waimea for seventeen years he moved to Makaweli [Kauai] where he resided from about 1915; he was luna (plantation overseer) with the Hawaiian Sugar Company. He died July 31, 1956 (Honolulu Advertiser, August 8, 1956, B5), a veteran of World War I. He had a son, Pedro or Peter Jerome of California (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 125) and another one, Joaquim Andrew of the USAF in California, besides a daughter, Christine (Sister Mary Joachim with the Franciscan Order in New York).

  • Manuel Joaquim Pereira, born December 1863 in Santa Izabel, Boa Vista, Cabo Verde Islands, married to Christina da Conceição Cabral, born in São Miguel in 1877. Had been a resident of Wailua, Kauai for forty-three years in 1930. In 1894 he had lived in Hawaii for 9 years and was a hotel-keeper. 30 He owned property and had a Sugar Cane business. He had ten children, three married: Anna Jerves (b. 1894), Joaquim (Santos) (b. 1896), (see Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 590), Manuel (b. 1898), Maria [Mrs. Mary Rita of Kauai], George of California, Anthony or Antone (1900) of Kauai, Carolina, Joseph, John, and Thomas of Kauai. One daughter was Sister Mary Christine of the Sacred Hearts Academy in Honolulu. (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 129; 1900 census E D. 35, sh. 2) [1910 census Kauai Co. 207 or 226 Lihue district]. There is a letter from M.J. Pereira of Waimea, Kauai to Mr. J.P. Rodrigues dated February 28, 1910 published in O Luso, 5 March, 1910, p. 1:

    “Fallando da nossa Sociedade Lusitana, o meu rapaz que actualmente se encontra no Collegio de St. Louis, é como de facto um residente de Honolulu e no pleno goso dos seus direitos—eu desejava (apesar de ser ainda jovem) que elle assistisse às reuniões ordinarias para bem d'elle praticar, nao sõ na Nossa Lingua, como tambem nos afazeres da Sociedade. Rogo-lhe pois a fineza de o entroduzir quando houver alguma reuniã o que elle esteja presente.

    D'esde ja agradeço pela cortesia,

    Sou Seu Atto, Cdo. e Obgdo,

    M. J. Pereira,
    Waimea, Kauai”


    “Speaking of our Lusitana Society, my son who is now at St. Louis College is as a matter of fact a resident of Honolulu and in the full enjoyment of his rights—I desired (despite his still being young) that he attend regular meetings for his being able to practice not only our Language but also the tasks of the Society. I beg you then to be so good as to introduce him whenever there is a meeting that he attends.

    In advance I thank you for the courtesy.

    I am Your Most Attentive Servant and Obliged to You,

    M. J. Pereira
    Waimea, Kauai”
    • Pedro Eustachio Pereira born in Santa Izabel, Boa Vista, Cabo Verde Islands, married to Maria Anna Vargas, born in Belize, British Honduras. A resident of the islands since 1912 and in Wailuku, Maui since about 1915. He was Merchant, Bookkeeper, Surveyor, and later Attorney and Notary Public, in Paia. He had six children: Gregoria, Joaquim, Flora, Victor, Dommina, and Eliseo. (Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories, p. 89). He died in San Francisco August 4, 1946 at the age of 81. He was a practitioner and collector, widower of Anita Perea [sic], who died in Maui in 1930. See Honolulu Advertiser, August 25, 1946, p2 c6.

    • John Perite of Brava and Waikapu, Maui was naturalized (O-210) on September 23, 1861 in Wailuku. He was married to Kaholo on September 23, 1861.

    • James Perry of Cabo Verde and Makaha, Waianae was naturalized (P-305) on September 11, 1871.

    • The name of Narcis Perry, 43, of Manoa appears to be from Cabo Verde Islands on the Great Register of Voters of 1887. Narcizo José Antonio of Cabo Verde was naturalized (H-72) on November 26, 1849. The name of Narcise Perry is found in the city directories of New Bedford, RI, and Fairhaven between 1893 and 1896. He is supposed to have left Honolulu some time after 1890 in displeasure occasioned by the marriage of a daughter to someone of whom he did not approve. Narcissus Perry in 1871 had bought 16 and a half acres of Manoa land from Kealohapauole, bought a ranch in 1875 from Kahele, in 1878 from Likua, and from the estate of Charles Kana'iuna, the father of former King William Lunalilo, established by 1881 a dairy ranch near Woodlawn. By Malie Kuahine (1830 or 1837? – 1904) Narcisis Perry, Narcisse Perry, or Narcezo Gamboa, who died intestate on or about September 22, 1894 on the island of Brava in the Cape Verde Islands, had children, several of whom died childless before him, the surviving ones including: A. Isabella (1865 or 1871), married in Honolulu on January 21, 1883 [See The Friend, February 1, 1883, p. 13, c. 2] to Manuel Baptiste, steward, who came to Hawaii in 1875 (b. in Portugal in 1855) and in 1894 to George I. Parker, with children: Catherine (Katie) Baptiste (b. 1886?) married to Young Choy and Chun An Tong, Charles Palikapu Baptiste (b. 1883) married to May Kamalu Mi'i, and Alina (b. 1885) and/or Ivy Baptiste; Antone (b. 1870) married in 1896 to Annie Cullen; B. Mary Ann Malu'ihi Perry (September 23, 1872 – August 16, 1942) see Honolulu Star Bulletin August 17, 1942, p. 5 died at her home at 2702 E. Manoa Road after a long illness. She was married first to John Kalomaika'i in 1896 (the date of issue of the marriage license was July 3, 1896 and the copy was sent to the Registrar of Marriages on August 31, 1896); the groom, (John) Kaloa'amaikai, was 24, a Hawaiian cowboy of Manoa, with parents: Kauwale and Mele Hoolapa, the bride, Meleana Perry, also 24, had parents: Narcisse Perry, Portuguese, and Kuahine Perry, Hawaiian; Isabella Perry was witness; and after her divorce from Kalo'aamaikai (who later married a lei-seller named Rose or Loke) she married Murphy Gonzalves. Meleana Perry and Kaloa'amaika'i had children: Phillip (b. 1899) and/or Francis, Valentine, Abraham married to Florence Meiers, and Evelyn married to William Opunui. C. Bernard or Berenaba (1873? – July 8, 1940), see Honolulu Star Bulletin July 10, 1940, p. 10, c. 5) taro planter, married to Luika or Luukia Perry of Napoopoo, South Kona, buried in Ocean View Cemetery (1875? – January 3, 1934), see Honolulu Advertiser, January 5, 1934, p. 12, c. 1). N. Perry left for San Francisco aboard the S.S. Mariposa on June 4, 1891(The Friend, vol. 46, no. 7, July 1891, p. 48). Malie Kuahine had children also by Joseph Roberts (see Joseph Robert and Jose Roberts) and Manuel Enos Silva, and married in 1897 John (Ioane) Paniani. (See Manoa, the story of a Valley Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 1994 pp. 154, 187 for Ioane “John Paniani,” a retired taro farmer... lay leader of the [Manoa Valley] congregation from 1896 to 1903]. At her death at the age of 70, Mary Ann Perry Gonsalves left three sons: Valentine and Abraham Maikai of Honolulu, Dudie Maikai of California, two foster children, a niece, Mrs. Katie Chun, and a nephew, Charles Baptiste, and other nieces and nephews: George, Henry, Maiola, and Helen Roberts; Mrs. Eleen Riley; Bernard and Ernest Chun. (See newspaper August 17, 1942) For the household of Manuel Baptiste, Isabella Perry, and Annie Perry, see 1900 Census vo. 9, E.D. 3, sh. 8. See Narcizo Jose Antonio, of Cape Verde. See Bureau of Conveyances for N. Perry as grantee: Book 90, p. 433; Book 113, p. 476; Book 114, p. 2; Book 115, p. 3; Book 141, pp. 286 and 439; Book 145, p. 389; Book 146, p. 280. The first name appears there as Nar., Narc., Narcisse, Narses, Nasses, N. At the time of his death he owned property in New Bedford, RI, a parcel on S. Water Street between Cannon and Coffin Streets, number 285. See 1st Circuit Probate No. 2939. First Circuit Criminal Case No. 987 for 1879 RE: Narcissus Perry. First Circuit Divorce Case 2342 in 1891: Narcisse Perry v. Kuahine Perry. See also Manoa, The Story of a Valley Honolulu; Mutual Publishing, 1994 p. 148 for Narcissus, and also pp. 24, 149-52, 165 for the other Perrys, especially Isabelle and Mary Ann. Mary Ann in the 1920s became owner and hostess of entertainment for tourists at her large home at 2704 East Manoa Road. There was a divorce case 0988 in January 1883 Joseph Perry of Honolulu vs. Maggie Perry. They were married in California 7 February 1879 and in May 1879 came to Honolulu. There were 2 children: John J. Perry born on May 16, 1880 and Alina Perry, 3 months of age. Maggie Perry was a drunkard and caused loss of property to the libellant, the brother of Narcisse Perry of Manoa. The divorce was granted.

    • João de Pina, from Brava, was a founding member of the St. Antonio Society. [see 1910 census Hawaii Co. 100 Kaauhuhu] The 1900 Census gives (E.D. 92, sh. 9) Henry Pino, part-Hawaiian, servant of E. H. Bailey, innkeper, Makawao, born in 1883 in Hawaii of father from Cabo Verde and mother from Hawaii.

    • Antonio Pires, born in Cabo Verde islands in about 1872, coming to Hawaii in 1898, a milker of cows. See ED26, 21A of 1910 census-Oahu Co. 021 Honolulu. His wife was Mary Tavares with son, Antone. Antonio married her in about 1900, her second marriage, and his first; she was born in about 1883 in Hawaii of Portuguese parents. They had children: Minnie (Mrs. Burgo) of Sebastopol, California, 1896; Adelaide, 1898; Antonio, 1900; Florina, 1901; Dewey, 1903, later a laborer at the Navy Yard in Pearl Harbor; Charles (September 28, 1905 – November 14, 1960), an auto operator at the Navy Yard, living at 424 Libby Street, married to Madeline, who survived him with children: Joseph, Hartwell, Dean, daughters Mrs. Allan (Mary) Silva, Mrs. John (Florence) D'Adamo of Cherry Point, NC, Miss Jean Pires, Miss Beverly Pires (Honolulu Advertiser, November 18, 1960, B6:7); Alvina (Mrs. Fung), 1908, Manuel. See O Luso of June 19, 1915, p. 4, for the fire which burned down the home of Antonio Pires, native of Cabo Verde, on Kaumualii Street in Kalihi.

    • N. Prader of Brava WI was naturalized, O-142, on Sept, 28, 1860.

    • Manuel Quail (Coelho) of Brava, Cabo Verde and Waikapu, Maui was naturalized (P-142) on March 29, 1869. He had a son, William Joseph Huelani Coelho (January 1, 1870 to November 12, 1924) by Kaeuemi (wahine), as indicated in Will No. 398 of Manuel Flores. William later became a school teacher, a member of the territorial House and Senate; his son, Captain William J. Coelho (February 27, 1903 – October 12, 1950) became a tugboat captain.

    • Antonio Manuel Ramos, from São Nicolau or Brava, was a founding member of the St. Antonio Society. He was married to Louisa Haiku or Upai. Their children were: Lokana Ramos (September 1860 – November 13, 1946) who married [T.] Manuel Joseph or Joseph Manuel Martin alias Joseph Leilehu (March 18, 1851 – November 24, 1934); Maria (baptized November 10, 1872); Inatia(baptized January 26, 1874); John (baptized November 14, 1876); and twins Andreas and Maria (baptized December 29, 1878). Maria married Manuel Antonio Barreto, q.v. NOTE: there were two Antonre Manuels naturalized, one from São Nicolau on March 24, 1849 and the other from Cabo Verde on January 5, 1857, (N-282).

    • Aurelio Fortes Ramos was naturalized (P-193) December 30, 1869. He died in Ewa on March 4, 1890. He was married (1) to Kaneakama and (2) to Maria Conceição Ramos; he had children by his wives: Enos or Ignacio A. Fortes, Nicolau, and Ana Maria; Ana, Rosa Maria, Antonio, and Januario; Anthony by Rebecca also.

    • Domingos Ramos of Cabo Verde and Wailuku was naturalized (P-34) on August 1, 1867.

    • Antone Carvalho Reis – According to J. S. Rodman, in a letter to Dolores Furtado Martin, Antone C. Reis was—like Manuel Gil dos Reis—of Brava, Cabo Verde islands. His obituary appeared in the Honolulu Honolulu Advertiser, for June 28th, 1952, p. 5, c. 1, He was a former post office employee in Kapaa, before moving to Oakland nine years before his death on June 11 at Permanente Hospital in Oakland. He was survived by his wife: Mrs. Mary Reis, and sons: Charles and Harold.

    • Manuel Gil dos Reis – He was born in Cabo Verde on November 25, 1850, according to one account, in Oporto on November 25, 1854 according to another. He arrived on a whaler, the Atlantic, from New Bedford, RI, on September 4, 1875; he had been injured aboard ship (his left arm being broken). The whaler Napoleon had collided with the bark Atlantic of Chile. Both ships arrived together. Cf. J. F. Medeiros. He married Eugenia Keohookalani or Maluhi Reis (the marriage of Manuel Reis and Eugenia Pilipo took place in Honolulu on December 4, 1879), born near Hulihee on January 8, 1865, granddaughter of Kalauokahaopiilani. Her father was Peter Kuamoo? o? Kekuaokalani or Kahaule-o-Kuakini and mother Elizabeth Kaahumakimi? o? Kaleimoku, or Kaahumakini. She died after him. (See Honolulu Star Bulletin, September 7, 1935 p. 1, c. 1-8; Honolulu Advertiser, December 1, 1929, society section, p. 6, for picture; Honolulu Advertiser, December 3, 1929 p. 7 for the story of the December 4, 1879 wedding, held in the Roman Catholic Cathedral, at which Bishop Herman Koeckemann officiated, with Fr. Leonore helping; Honolulu Advertiser, December 5, 1939, p. 6 for the reception at the Reis home on Punchbowl slope, at Prospect street extension above Magazine Street, their first home having been in a cottage mauka side (mountain side) of Queen between Richards and Mililani, now occupied by Melim Service Station; Honolulu Star Bulletin for April 20, 1942, p. 1 with a picture on p. 2). They had a son Alexander Poki Reis (b. November 1885), and daughters, Palmyra Lonokahikini (b. May 1894), teacher for the DPI, and Helen or Helena Kekumualii Reis (b. September 1895). (1900 census E.D. 10, sh. 23; 1910 census, E.D.31 - Oahu Co. 147. Reis became manager of the Young Auto Stand. His name appears as Manoel Reis, 31, driver, Queen Street, from the Cabo Verde Islands in the Great Register of Voters of 1887. He was a hackman and chauffeur to King Kalakaua. He had been a political prisoner in 1895 and retired in 1929. He died on September 25, 1939. See Honolulu Advertiser, September 26, 1939, p. 5, and September 27, 1939, p. 9, as well as the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, September 26, 1939, p. 1. See Wray Anthony Francisco Jose, “The Manuel Reis Case” in The Hawaiian Journal of History, volume 16, pp. 134?148. See also Edith Kawelohea McKinzie, Hawaiian Genealogies, vol . 1 (Laie: Institute for Polynesian Studies, 1983, pp. 57-58, 61). See under Bright account of a friendship of the Reverend Andrew Iaukea Bright with ‘Blacky’ Reis.

    • Pacific Commercial Advertiser, December 22, 1884, p. 3 noted the drowning of John Reychard, seaman on board a ship, native of Santo Antão, fell overboard at 6:30 a.m. on the 19th; said to be a good scholar, and was a master of tachygraphy, or rapid writing.

    • Antone Richard, part-Hawaiian, born in Hawaii in May 1868 with parents born in São Nicolau and Hawaii, a laborer, with wife, born in Hawaii of parents from Guam and Hawaii in 1873. They had a daughter, Filomenia, born in Hawaii in 1893. See 1900 census (E.D. 24, sheet 6) and 1910 census, v. 11, E.D. 48, sh. 25, where Antone Richards, born in Portugal of Portugal-born parents, is listed as 68, married 21 years to Anne, 38, of Portuguese father and Hawaii-born mother, with Hawaii-born children: Louis, 17, Helen, 10, Peter, 7, Michael, 4, James, 8/12. NOTE: also: Julia (née Richard?) Guerrero, wife of [Joseph] Guerrero of Guam. She was born in Hawaii in December 1863(?) to a father from São Nicolau and a mother from Hawaii and at their home in 1900 census vol. 11, E.D. 19, sh. 14 was living with them Nicholas Richard (b. November 1881) born in Hawaii of a father from São Nicolau and a mother from Hawaii, a day laborer at the time. In 1900 Joseph Guerrero was a policeman. See Julia Guerrero.

    • Reese Roman “Dick” Richardson, born May 1852 in California, of Pennsylvania-born parents, came to Hawaii in 1888. In 1889 he married Maria P. Richardson (born in Portugal on April 3, 1870, died in Hilo January 6, 1950) who came to Hawaii in 1883. Their children were: Manuel (b. May 1890) later a truck operator for Davies & Co., Hilo, living at Kaumana Road, José (b. 1891), perhaps later lived at 1708 Nuuanu Avenue, Honolulu, Alice (b. 1896), and Rosa (b. 1898) (See 1900 Hawaii census E.D. 6l sheet 46) was a painter, and died in Hilo July 5, 1915 at the age of 57 or 67. (See Hilo Tribune, July 6, 1915, p. 8, c. 2 and July 10, 1915, p. 3, c. 3). There was an Evangeline Richardson in Hilo (April 17, 1913 – October 25, 1961), buried at Homelani Memorial Park.

    • The 1900 census, vol. 11, E.D. 24, sheet 5, l. 37 has an A. Frank Robelo, born in São Nicolau in October 1854 with wife, Nancy, born in Hawaii in January 1879 and children: Maria, (b. June 1892), John, (b. October 1894), Frank, (b. September 1898), Joe, (b. July 1896), Rosa, (b. March 1900). They lived on Kamehameha Street, Honolulu.

    • The name of John Roderick, 28, Fowler's Yard, from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of Louis Rodrigo, 59, Beretania Street, appears as from the Cabo Verde Islands in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of L. Rodrigues, 28, laborer, Spreckelsville, Maui appears as from the Cabo Verde Islands in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • Andrew Rose of San Diego [Santiago], Cabo Verde and Waialua, was naturalized (P-123) on December 5, 1868. He [Andrea Rose, kane (male)] married Luika in Waialua on December 7, 1868.

    • Cabo Verde is given as the birthplace for John Ross in the Register of Voters, 1887-1888. He was a fish merchant and 67 years old, living in Wailuku, Maui. A report of the Insane Asylum mentioned in the Pacific Commercial Advertiser of May 23, 1868, p. 2, spoke of a patient there named Ross:
      ...a Brava Portuguese not recognized by the United States as a claimant upon the relief fund, as it has not been proven he shipped in an American port, which is requisite to bring a foreigner under the category of American seaman. For the past five months he has been in the Insane Asylum as general private patient, so understood, and the bills were settled to the end of 1867, out of his private funds. It is well understood that General Smith was in correspondence with the Department at Washington with the hope of getting it to recognize this case of Ross as an exceptional one, and up to this date the matter is in abeyance as to who must pay his expenses.”

    • Silas de Saint of Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (M-26) on October 5, 1854. See Warranty Deed in Conveyances, vol. 15, p. 19 for property at Kalaulele, Lihue, Ewa, granted by Silas De Sant, formerly of Ewa, to William Webster, lot no. 2 of land granted by Land Sale, Royal Patent No. 222. It was signed January 29, 1862.

    • Antonio “Sam” or “Seam” (one or two persons?) from Santo Antão, Cabo Verde Islands, was naturalized in 1845, (C-203). By a person outside the Roman Catholic faith, Matai, from the island of Wahii [sic] he had a son Antonius Robertus Seam, born January 30, 1838 and baptized March 3, 1838. Antonio Sam and Pipali had daughter, Sophia, baptized in 1840. He granted land at Puunui Helu 101 to Alexandre Andre on January 28, L.C.A. (Land Commission Awards) 1862, vol. 15, p. 18.

    • Pedro Samado of Santiago, Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (G-96) on December 27, 1848. Petrus Samado married Juliana Memelani on June 10, 1872.

    • Antone De Santan – See The Friend, November 1, 1860, p. 87, c. 3 for the death of this Cabo Verdean on board the ship Rapid on July 4, 1860 at the age of 32 years.

    • An item appeared in O Luso Hawaiiano, March 18, 1888, p. 2, to the effect that João dos Santos, a native of the island of Brava, supposed to be in Makaha, had some money due him from the Alabama State Claims which would be given to him if he went to the Consulate of Portugal and proved his identity.

    • Louis Santos is mentioned in The Friend 1856 February 1, p. 16, c. 1 as a native of Cabo Verde Islands, who died December 5, 1855.

    • The name of Manoel A. de Santos, 30, Hanamaulu, Kauai from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of Frank Senna, 52, teamster, Puehuehu, Hawaii from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887. He may be the Francisco J. Sena naturalized (P-58) on January 6, 1868 from the Cabo Verde Islands.

    • Manuel Miranda Sequeira – According to a newspaper article of August 21, 1962, Sequeira was Caboverdean, shipped from New Bedford, RI, at 19. He jumped ship. He married Leopolina/Lespoldina Sylva, the sister of Mr(s). John A. Duarte. They had sons: Paul, Peter, and Louis. A grandson was Bobby Lee. See 1910 census index Maui Co. 186 Kahului town for Lespoldina, Louisa, Louisa, Manuel, Mesalina, Paul, Pedro, Sophia.

    • The Ocean View Cemetery, Oahu, has the tombstone of Maria C. Serrao, born June 26, 1886 in São Vicente, Cabo Verde and died January 22, 1926. Only three people listed are named Mary Serrão, aged 29, in the 1920 census index, vol. 10, E.D. 31, sh. 31, aged 28, the 1920 census indexvol. 10, E.D. 31, sh. 33, and aged 62, born in Portugal, the 1920 census index, vol. 4, E.D. 114, sh. 5.

    • John Sherman of Fogo, Cabo Verde and Waianae was naturalized (P-11) in February 1867.

    • Albert Silva born in 1860 in the Cabo Verde Islands, recorded in Honolulu in the 1900 census, vol. 11, E.D. 20, sh. 33, l. 21.

    • Andrew Silva of Cabo Verde was naturalized (P-195) on January 8, 1870.

    • The 1900 census, vol. 11, E.D. 26, sh. 8, l. 19 gives Auguste Silva, born in 1832, Cabo Verde, who came to Hawaii in 1865, living in Ewa with his wife, Maria, born in Portugal in May 1852, who came in 1885. The marriage took place 3 years before the date of the census. The 1910 census vol. 7, E.D. 52, sh. 19, Ewa has August Silva, 76, widower, living on his own income, who came to Hawaii in 1851.

    • Toao da Sylva of Cabo Verde was naturalized (N-329) on August 22, 1857. Probably the first name should be João.

    • John Sylva of Cabo Verde was naturalized (L-4) on February 28, 1853.

    • John R. Silva, born in February 1858, a widower, was born in Hawaii to a father from Cabo Verde and mother from Hawaii, with wife, Mary, born in Hawaii in 1852. See 1910 census Oahu Co. 233. The name of John R. Silva, 59, Punahou, from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of Joseph Silva, 57, farmer, Kaneohe, from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of Portas Silva, 45, laborer, Puehuehu, from the Cabo Verde Islands appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • Thomas Silva, from Cabo Verde in 1894 was 47 years old, had lived in Hawaii for 30 years, was an overseer and coffee planter, living in Laaloa, N. Kona, Hawaii.31 See Special Rights for Hawaii, August 10, 1894 - 102. He was 77 at the time of his death on July 21, 1917. He may be the Thomas Silva, Caboverdeano, naturalized on May 23, 1867, number (P-27).

    • Frank Smith of Santiago, Cabo Verde and Honolulu was naturalized (N-114) on November 24, 1855.

    • George Smith of Cabo Verde and Ewa was naturalized (L-92) on March 8, 1854.

    • In the 1900 census (E.D. 25, sheet 7) are listed Joaquin Soares, King Street, Kalihi, a waiter, born in April 1855 in Portugal, married 12 years to Mary, Caucasian, born in January 1868 in Portugal, both of whom came in 1879. They had children, listed as Black: James (b. October 1888), Annie (b. July 1895), Mary A. (b. May 1898), and Marion (b. February 1900). See 1910 census Maui Co. 272 Kamaole?.

    • Joao Baptista Soarez of Boa Vista, Cabo Verde and Waimalo, Ewa, Oahu was naturalized (P-93) on May 30, 1868.

    • The name of Manuel de Jesus Souza, 38, Punahou from St A[ntao] appears on the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • The name of John Tavares, 62, of Hanamaulu, Kauai appears in the Great Register of Voters of 1887 as from the Cabo Verde Islands. He is probably the John Tavarey naturalized on January 4, 1859, (N-453).

    • Pedro or Peter Lopes Texeira, born in Brava in about 1882, came to Hawaii in 1892, married to Hawaii-born Mary C. of Portuguese parents. He died November 30, 1924 in Honolulu. See Honolulu Advertiser, December 1, 1924, p. 5, c. 5; he was a merchant and lived at 1436 Lusitana Street. They had children: Christiano (b. 1906), Margaret T. (b. 1908), Eliza (b. 1909). See 1910 census E.D. 36, 30B - Honolulu 134?.

    • Frank Thomas of Cabo Verde and Molokai was naturalized (O-299) on May 28, 1863.

    • The name of Lorene Timos, 49, Makiki, appears as from the Cabo Verde Islands in the Great Register of Voters of 1887.

    • Octaviano Valles/Wallace was born in Cabo Verde August 20, 1883 to Joaquim and Florinda de Pina. He came to Hawaii via New Bedford, RI, in 1900, and in 1911 married Placidia Torres, born in 1896 in Yauco, Puerto Rico. He died in San Francisco on October 4, 1940. She died in Maluhia Home on July 4, 1946. There were children: Mary Torres Wallace (1915 – 1989), Frank Wallace (1918 – 1989), Rose Wallace (b. 1920), and George (b. 1922). Information was given by Lori Manila, granddaughter, at the Festa Portuguesa on September 30, 1995.

    • Manoel Vega (Baga) from Cabo Verde, in 1894 was 25 years old, had lived in Hawaii 9 years, was a merchant, living on Alapai Street, Honolulu.32

    • John Williams of Brava was naturalized on July 31, 1863, (O-308).

    • Ricardo Antonio Xavier from São Nicolau was a founding member of the St. Antonio Society. See 1910 census for Xaver [sic] family, Honolulu 168.

    • NOTE: There was a curious item dated at Kawailoa, Oahu, on December 22 in O Luso, of December 28, 1912, p. 4 from a 35-year-old reader from Brava:

      “Sr. Redactor,

      Primeiramente desejo agradecer-lhe pelas boas novidades que tenho lido no seu periodico, especialmente ha uns quatro meses para cá. Confesso ter passado muitas horas entristecido com a sua leitura ainda mal por não saber ler inglès e que O Luso è a unica fonte de informação, não só para mim como para um grande numero dos seus assinantes que tambem só lêem um pouco na lingua da nossa terra.

      Antes de mencionar o que motivava esta carta, desejo informar a V. S. que sou natural da ilha da Brava, conto 35 annos de edade, um pouco alto, não muito gordo, sinto-me cheio de vida, não sou jogador (batoteiro) bêbo o meu copo mas não sou beberrão, tenho algum dinheiro na caixa economica n'um banco de Honolulu, tenho trabalho e força para ganhar dinheiro, mas chega agora o momento que começo a sentir a falta de uma companheira.

      Penso que sem dizer muito mais que o Sr. Redactor já pode adivinhar a razão de eu lhe escrever mas para não ter duvidas sempre lhe digo: Li no seu jornal que as meninas d'estas ilhas tinham tanta consideração para com a influencia d'O Luso que não so procuravam nas suas columnas objectos como presentes como tambem ‘objectos de amor’ e achando-me só sinho n'este Paraiso, pensei communicar-lhe este facto com a ideia de ver se me arranjava a Eva que tanto perciso para dar alegria ao meu Paraiso domestico.

      Na escolha que deixe ao seu bom gosto, não exijo muita formosura nem riqueza, apenas insisto ella ser boa rapariga, nã o muito antiga, que não tenha cabellos loiros, boa governante de casa e mais que todo, fiel no objecto dos seus amores (eu) e ainda mais que não tenha pejo da sua vida anterior.

      Incluso mando-lhe o meu retrato (não para publicar) para que mostre ás applicantes e o livro do banco que diz quanto dinheiro está depositado. Logo que encontre uma rapariga que o Sr. Redactor tiver prova ser uma que preencha todas as qualificações, rogo-lhe que me informe immediatamente para eu ir ahi tratar do nosso casamento.

      Com todo o respeito,
      Sou vosso Crdo. Attvo. Obrdo.
      M. G. Solteiro”


      “The Editor, First I desire to thank you for the good news I have read in your newspaper, especially from about four months ago. I confess having spent many hours saddened by reading it still badly for not knowing how to read English and that O Luso is the only source of information, not only for me but for a great number of those subscribers who also only read a little in the language of our country.

      Before mentioning what motivated this letter, I wish to inform you that I am a native of the island of Brava, I am 35 years old, somewhat tall, not very stocky, I feel full of life, I am not a gambler (cheat), I drink my goblet but I am not a drunkard, I have some money in the bank account of a Honolulu bank, I have work and strength to earn money but now arrives the moment in which I am beginning to feel the lack of a female companion.

      I think that without saying more that you already can guess the reason for my writing to you but so as not to have any doubts ever I say to you: I read in your paper that the girls of these islands had such consideration for the influence of O Luso that not only did they search in your columns for objects like presents but also ‘objects of love‘ and finding myself all alone in this Paradise, I thought of communicating to you this fact with the idea of seeing if you might arrange for me the Eve that I so much need to give happiness to my domestic Paradise.

      In the choice which I leave to your good taste, I do not demand much beauty or wealth, I insist only on her being a good girl, not very old, who does not have blond hair, a good house manager and more than anything, faithful to the object of her love (me) and still more that there be no stain on her prior life.

      Enclosed I send to you my portrait (not to be published) for you to show to the applicants and the bank book which tells how much money is on deposit. As son as you find a girl whom you may have fulfilling all the qualifications, I beg you to inform me immediately so that I can go there to arrange for our marriage.

      With all respect,
      I am your Servant, Attentive, Obliged,
      M. G. Bachelor

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1   Eleanor C. Nordyke, “Blacks in Hawai'i: A Demographic and Historical Perspective,” The Hawaiian Journal of History, volume 22 (1988), 243.

2   This statement was based on Richard A. Greer, Blacks in Old Hawaii, Honolulu, Nov, 1986: 120-121, 183-184. For George Washington Hyatt, a former slave who had escaped from Virginia and his association with the Royal Hawaiian Band, see George S. Kanahele, ed. Hawaiian Music and Musicians, Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, 1979, p. 336, the article signed by Allie Lorch and Nicklaus Schweizer, Royal Hawaiian Band, where it is stated that the “mostly ‘negroes’ ” comprising the earlier band of 1837 probably referred to native Hawaiians. There seems to be no connection with Cabo Verde. Hyatt died in Honolulu February 13, 1870 at the age of 65 (see The Friend, March 1, 1870, p. 24. c. 3. and Hawaiian Gazette, February 16, 1870, p. 3, c. 5. His wife Kahae, whom he was fined for horsewhipping in December 1845, died January 15, 1859 at the age of 44 (see Pacific Commercial Advertiser, January 20, 1859). A daughter, Mary Ann Hyatt, died at the age of 19 on January 21, 1856 (see The Friend, March 1, 1856, p. 24 or 21, c. 1. A wife, Pali, married him February 19, 1866 (O-22b:3, O-30:79) and died February 20, 1866. See The Friend, April 2, 1866, p. 32, c. 2. One of the earliest blacks in Honolulu, who first arrived in Hawaii in 1810 was Anthony Allen, from Schenectady, whose daughter, Peggy, was born in 1814, and who died in December 31, 1835. He was keeper of a saloon, boarding house, and practiced medicine. Other early blacks mentioned by Greer are America Shattuck, David Curtis, Arthur Cooper (barber, died in 1849), Spencer Rhodes (barber and perhaps violinist), Frederick E. Binns, Joseph Bedford alias Joe Dollar who died at the age of at least 70 in August 1844, Williams (or Bill) the Baker, Charles H. Nicholson, tailor, Stephen Francis, cook, David Pine, Thomas Johnson, John Wilson, Elyneas Case, John Colcord, Lewis Temple of New Bedford, RI, inventor of a “toggle” harpoon.

3   For this statement, see Bernard L. Hormann, “A Note on Hawaii's Minorities Within Minorities,” Social Process in Hawaii, 18 (1954) 45-56.

4   See Bernard L. Hormann: Community Forces in Hawaii, A book of Readings, Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 1968, p.214, from Romanzo Adams: “Census Notes on the Negroes in Hawaii Prior to the War” (1945).

5   See Kenneth W. Parker, “Notes on Negroes in Early Hawaii,” in Journal of Negro History, vol. 19 (1943) pp. 193-197, especially pp. 195-197.

6   See Kenneth W. Porter, “Notes on Negroes in Early Hawaii,” in Journal of Negro History, vol.10 (1934), pp. 193-197, especially p. 196.

7   See Baltasar Lopes da Silva, O Dialecto de Cabo Verde (Imprensa Nacional de Lisboa, 1957), p. 35.

8   O Luso, November 4, 1911, p. 1: “Diga, por mim, que eu considero que os Portuguezes melhoraram, muitissimamente, a sua situação em emigrarem para Hawaii.”

9   O Luso, November 4, 1911, p. 1.

10   O Popular, November 9, 1911, p. 2.

11   See plate 56, Encyclopaedia Britannica World Atlas, London, etc., 1951.

12   See Baltasar Lopes da Silva, op. cit., pp. 99-100: “Em todo o arquipélago, o v do português normal está representado por b... Deve porém, dizer-se que em Barlkavento a influência do padrão metropolitano de pronúncia baniu o b v em alguns vocábulos: palavras de Sotavento, como brába Bráva, além de outras, soam em Barlavento... bráva.

13   See the discussion in Leo Pap: The Portuguese-Americans (Boston: Twayne, 1981), pp. 18-19, 113-114.

14   J. F. Freitas, Portuguese-Hawaiian Memories(Honolulu: The Printshop Company, Limited, 1930).

15   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 9, emitted on July 30, 1894.

16   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 691.

17   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 965.

18   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 330.

19   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 1005.

20   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 250.

21   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 19.

22   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 266.

23   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 794.

24   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 249.

25   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 590.

26   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 999.

27   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 253.

28   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 483.

29   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 104.

30   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 294.

31   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 102.

32   See Certificate of Rights of Citizenship, no. 899.

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* NOTE 1: This citation is to provide more information about my family. They were known as the Franks family, although the family name in the church register in Hilo, Hawaii, was Francisco de Jesus.

* NOTE 2: John & Eulaia Fernandez-Franks Story:

John Francisco de Jesus “Franks” [1846 to 1940] married Eulalia Fernandez [1868 to 1915] in (apx.) 1884 in Honolulu, Hawaii. John & Eulalia Franks had 7 children.

Eulalia Fernandez's father had three wives. Eulalia and her brother were children of his first wife. Her sister, Mary, was the child of a later wife. The Fernandez family came to the Hawaiian Islands from Funchal, Madeira, when Eulalia was very young. She was raised with her brother in Hawaii.

John Francisco and his brother, were born on Brava, Cape Verde Islands. They came to Hawaii together in the early 1880s. There they met the two Fernandez sisters and married them. John was 38, and Eulalia 16, at the time of their marriage. Shortly after the marriages, the two brothers took their brides back to the island of Brava in Cape Verde to introduce them to their relatives. While there, Arcenia was born on March 22, 1885, on Brava. After her birth they travelled to Providence, Rhode Island. While there, Annie was born in 1888 and Francis was born on August 22, 1889. In 1890, John and Eulalia, now aged 44 and 22 respectively, returned to Hawaii, leaving her sister, Mary, and his brother in Providence where they remained. We have an album of pictures of these relatives from a trip that Francis and his wife Carmen made in the 1930s.

After their return to the islands, Louis was born in 1891, Joseph in 1894, Lucina “Lucy” on January 31, 1896, and Frederick “Freddie” in 1898.

John Franks (as he then called himself) worked for the Wilder Steamship Co., Ltd., and later for the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company. Eulalia died in 1915, at age 47. John retired from the sea nine years later, in 1924, at age 78. Eulalia was an accomplished seamstress and ran a small dressmaking and mending business out of her home. Arcenia was also an accomplished seamstress. Louis, and their son-in-law, Tony Gomes, were both engineers aboard ships.

Of this family, Arcenia Gomes, Frank “Francis” Franks, Carmen Franks (Frank's wife), Louis “Louie” Franks, Lucina “Lucy” Franks-Drummond and Elena Ann Stoops (Lucy's first grandchild) are buried in St. Helena, California. Frederick “Freddie” Franks is buried at the Valley of the Temples, Kaneohe, HI. John and Eulalia Franks, Annie Franks-Canha and Aldine Canha-Foley are buried in Makiki Cemetery in Honolulu, Hawaii.

* NOTE 3: John Franks Obituary in the Honolulu Advertiser on March 5, 1940 read:

John Franks, Kamaaina, Dies At 94 – John Franks, 2207-A Ala Wai, Kamaaina Honolulu resident and father of Francis Franks, who is vice president and treasurer of the Hawaiian Trust Co., Ltd., died at the Queen's Hospital at 8:13 a.m. yesterday after a brief illness. Mr. Franks was out and about up to last week.

Following family services at Borthwick's mortuary at 3:30 p.m. yesterday, the body was cremated and the ashes will be buried later in the family plot in Makiki cemetery.

Born in one of the Portuguese islands on June 19, 1846, Mr. Franks was in his ninety-fourth year. He came to Hawaii 56 years ago in 1884, and for many years was connected with the Wilder Steamship Co., Ltd., and later with the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co., Ltd., retiring from the sea 15 years ago. After his retirement, Mr. Franks travelled considerably, making several trips to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Mainland United States. Mr. Franks was also formerly a house painting contractor.

Mr. Franks became a widower several years ago. Surviving are two daughters, Mrs. Lucy Drummond, with the territorial board of education and Mrs. A. J. Gomes, living in Alameda, California; three sons, Frederick Franks, of the Niumalu Hotel; Joseph Franks, with Contractor M.J. Serpa, and Francis Franks, beside 20 grandchildren and two great grandchildren.”

* NOTE 4: The 7 Franks Children:

1. Arcenia (Franks) Gomes [born 3/22/1885 in Brava, Cape Verde, and died 12/24/1966 in Glendale, California] married Antone (Tony) Gomes [born 2/71874 in Brava, Cape Verde and died 10/22/1953] in Angwin, California]. They had 2 children: Howard Gomes, MD, [10/29/1914 to 03/24/1990] and “, [2/2/1920 to 1/8/2019].

2. Annie (Franks) Canha [born 7/1887 in Providence, RI and died 4/11/1923 in Hawaii]. She married Manuel “Jack” Canha [born 8/17/1889 in Hawaii and died 4/1972 in Hawaii]. They had 2 children: Adalina “Aldine” Louisa (Canha) Foley [born 11/9/1914 in Hawaii and died 12/26/1988 in Hawaii] and Alvin Augustine “Sonny” Canha [born 8/21/2017 in Hawaii and died 01/8/2009 in California].

3. Francis “Frank” Franks [born 8/22/1889 in Providence, RI and died in Oakland, CA 9/19/1950] married Carmeina Grace “Carmen” (Dias) Franks [born 6/18/1898 in Hawaii and died 8/24/1954 in California]. They had 3 children: Eulalia Irene (Franks) Pacheco [born 9/21/1918 in Hawaii and died 3/21/1994 in Hawaii], Francis Carmen (Franks) Moore [born 2/28/1920 in Hawaii], and John Earl Franks [born 10/12/1927 in Hawaii and died 11/10/2020 in Hawaii]. Frank Franks became Vice President and Treasurer of the Hawaiian Trust Company, Inc., which later became the Bank of Hawaii.

4. Louis “Louie” Franks [born 11/29/1891 in Hawaii] was a sailor and remained unmarried throughout his life.

5. Joseph “Joe” Franks [born 2/3/1894 in Hawaii and died 5/14/1961 in Hawaii] married Henrietta (Henriques) Franks. They had 2 children: Maxell Franks and Melvin Franks.

6. Lucina “Lucy” Franks [born 1/31/1896 in Hawaii and died 11/22/1966 in Oregon] married Robert Drummond (divorced). They had 1 child: Lois Ann (Drummond) Stoops [born 09/29/1925 and died 12/23/2009].

7. Frederick “Freddie“ Franks [born 8/1/1898 in Hawaii and died 1/23/1988 in Hawaii] married Alyce (divorced with no children), married Marian (Gonsalves) Franks and they had 4 children: Alfred, Jr., Suzanne (Franks) Hall, Antoinette Lois “Toni” (Franks) Granito, and John Franks.

* NOTE 5: The Dias family: John P. Dias [1861-1931] and Carmina S. Dias [1871-1956] had close ties with the Franks family. Their children: Theodore V. Dias, Lydia Soures, Clotilde Faria, Carmina Dias-Franks and Alzeria Manuel-Canha were family friends and neighbours. Clotilde's eldest son, Paul Vivas, lived on Black Point Road in Oahu before moving to California in his later years. Lydia Soure's daughter, Iris, lived in Honolulu.

* NOTE 6: The Gomes family, which consisted of Antone (Tony), Manuel and Joseph Branco, were born on Brava, Cape Verde. Their father changed his name to Gomes, which was his wife's last name. The three brothers came to Hawaii, which was were Tony met and married Arcenia.

* NOTE 7: It was a usual practice for Cape Verdean men to take the last name of their mother.

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